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Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They inhabit Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Massachusetts, and Maine. French missionaries came into contact with them in the early 17th cent., and the Mi'kmaqs were allies of the French throughout the history of New France. Contact with Europeans did not have the usual effect of tribal disintegration, and the Mi'kmaqs still thrive, though their culture has changed radically. Many are Roman Catholics. The Mi'kmaqs are expert canoeists, and, although their economy once centered on fishing and hunting, they now derive their income primarily from agriculture. In 1990 there were over 15,000 Mi'kmaq in Canada. Another 2,700 Mi'kmaq live in the United States, the only federally recognized band being the Aroostook in Maine.


See W. D. and R. S. Wallis, The Micmac Indians of Eastern Canada (1955); J. F. Pratson, Land of the Four Directions (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
Wabanaki children from the Mi'gmaq, Maliseet, Penobscot, and Passamaquoddy Bands/First Nations are educated in both tribal and public schools in Maine and the Canadian Maritime Provinces (i.
In northern Maine, the Aroostook Band of Mi'gmaq Indians estimated their students' graduation rate at 38.
Framed with the Minister in a two-shot, she becomes irate listening to him reflect on the armed invasion of the Mi'gmaq reserve by provincial police.
the camera lens is splashed by wake from a Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) skiff that is trying to intimidate Mi'gmaq fishermen.
In 1999, the Canadian Supreme Court upheld the treaty protected right of the Mi'gmaq people to fish where they had fished for centuries without licenses or regard to season.
But the by-rote self-congratulatory pronouncements of a Royal Canadian Mounted Police captain and the unctuous rationalizations of a DFO minister ring especially hollow in the face of certain indelible visuals: a shot of a respected Mi'gmaq tribesman being hauled ashore, bloody, bound and beaten, or the sight of a DSO vessel mowing down a little fishing boat and then U-turning to run it over again.
The complaints were submitted to the Canadian Judicial Council (CJC) in response to the judge's handling of the custody case, and, claim that the judge had discriminated against the mother-a Mi'gmaq woman from Listuguj Mi'gmaq First Nation-because she is Aboriginal.
The coalition told the Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board it supports the Innu, Maliseet and Mi'gmaq Alliance in their call for a 12-year moratorium on offshore oil and gas development in the gulf.
No images exist of the leader and Cote drew him based on drawings of other Mi'gmaq people at that time.
Though she wasn't allowed tc speak Mi'gmaq in residential school, Chief Margaret Pictou Labillois of Eel River Bar First Nation preserved her language because her mother and sister pressed her to speak it.
When Tyler Moffat received the information on career choices from the Listuguj Mi'gmaq Development Centre he didn't suspect how much it would change his life.
Listuguj Mi'gmaq First Nation is preparing for one of their toughest years with a government-imposed 63 per cent cut in the harvesting quota of snow crab.