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Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They inhabit Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Massachusetts, and Maine. French missionaries came into contact with them in the early 17th cent., and the Mi'kmaqs were allies of the French throughout the history of New France. Contact with Europeans did not have the usual effect of tribal disintegration, and the Mi'kmaqs still thrive, though their culture has changed radically. Many are Roman Catholics. The Mi'kmaqs are expert canoeists, and, although their economy once centered on fishing and hunting, they now derive their income primarily from agriculture. In 1990 there were over 15,000 Mi'kmaq in Canada. Another 2,700 Mi'kmaq live in the United States, the only federally recognized band being the Aroostook in Maine.


See W. D. and R. S. Wallis, The Micmac Indians of Eastern Canada (1955); J. F. Pratson, Land of the Four Directions (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
This conflict became known as Father Le Loutre's War and it should be noted that the French also paid the Mi'kmaq for English scalps.
Neil added: "Two-and-a-half centuries after the arrival of the first Scottish migrants, few would deny it's the Mi'kmaq communities who have paid the heaviest price.
Since the Mi'kmaq participated in treaty negotiations, they must have had an explicit political order and a common political will or they could not have exerted any influence on the treaty-making process.
Before proceeding to a discussion of Mi'kmaq Honour Song and Nukapianguaq, it will be useful to give an overview of these guidelines to identify the extent to which these pieces meet their criteria and have the potential to foster the same kind of self-transformation described by Bradley and Mackinlay.
111) The Mi'kmaq Justice Institute had to close its doors within three years because of challenges to its distinctiveness from the mainstream system, an overwhelming caseload, and community demands that it act beyond its capacity in criminal matters, as well as fight for treaty and Aboriginal rights in all forums.
Speaking out for the Mi'kmaq was how Palmater found her political voice.
As Mi'kmaq, the legal history of the Act's membership provisions cannot be viewed in an objective manner.
Specifically, within this research we used formal language tests to contrast the Mi'kmaq and English language skills of students attending a Mi'kmaq immersion program with the language skills of students learning Mi'kmaq as a second language at one school in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia.
In their study of hospital admission rates among members of the Mi'kmaq Nation in Nova Scotia, Webster et al.
But Mi'kmaq man, the church was forced on your folk for a long time now.
00pm) Iolo Williams meets the Mi'kmaq tribe in Canada, where he spends time at a remote fishing camp, experiences a moose hunt, and tries the life of a tribal commercial fisherman.
IOLO AC INDIAID AMERICA S4C, 9pm Yr wythnos hon bydd Iolo Williams yn teithio i Nova Scotia, Canada, ar gyrion Mr yr Iwerydd i wlad y Mi'kmaq.