Microcephaly


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Related to Microcephaly: macrocephaly

microcephaly

[‚mī·krō′sef·ə·lē]
(medicine)
The condition of having an abnormally small head, with a circumference less than two standard deviations below the mean.

Microcephaly

 

substantial reduction in skull and brain size in the presence of normal dimensions of other parts of the body. Microcephaly is accompanied by mental deficiency, from mild imbecility to idiocy. The causes of microcephaly are viral diseases suffered by the mother during the first three months of pregnancy, toxoplasmosis, and, sometimes, intrauterine meningoencephalitis of the fetus. The prognosis is unfavorable.

References in periodicals archive ?
Indeed, Ko said, research has shown that about 4% to 6% of those studied developed microcephaly, many with abnormally small heads and partly collapsed skulls, eye problems, hearing problems, issues with joints and muscles, and severe developmental issues.
In his study, researchers have shown that the risk of giving birth to a child with microcephaly might be associated with how the immune system reacts against the virus specifically what kind of antibodies it produces.
Recently a compound heterozygous mutations c.731 C > T (p.Ser 244 Leu) and c.2413 G > T (p.Glu 805 X) in the WDR62 gene responsible for the mitotic centrosomal protein WDR62, in a microcephaly family from Japanese.3 We have also reported in our recent study a missense mutation in exon 30 of WDR62changing alanine to aspartate in the protein leading to the typical MCPH2 phenotype.4 Whereas new homozygous splicing variantc.3335+1G>C in the WDR62 gene also reported recently.5 Previously pathogenic mutations reported in WDR62 include missense (e.g.
Recent research with Brazilian children with microcephaly revealed that there is a slight delay in dental eruption, with the first teeth erupting at around 12.3 months of age (3).
On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, in response to reported cases of microcephaly and neurological disorders and their possible association with Zika virus infection.
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1.3 to 150 per 100 000 births depending on the level of consanguinity and ethnicity.
These findings suggest that Zika virus was the causative agent of this case of microcephaly. PW3 had a maculopapular rash without fever or conjunctivitis and received a Zika virus diagnosis at 20 weeks' gestation.
Among the 1,386 (96%) children who did not have microcephaly detected at birth, 822 (59%) received neuroimaging, including 14 (2%) who had at least one brain anomaly identified.
Of the 30 women who gave birth to infants with microcephaly, 24 (80%) had Zika virus infections, compared with 39 of the 61 women (64%) in the control group (P = .12).
A (http://www.dshs.texas.gov/news/releases/2016/20160809.aspx) news release issued by the Texas Department of Health indicated that the state's first case of microcephaly (a neurological (http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/microcephaly/basics/definition/con-20034823) condition which causes congenital abnormalities and developmental issues) linked to the mosquito-borne Zika virus had also been reported in Harris County.
The virus has been linked to a spike in cases of microcephaly, a condition in which babies are born with abnormally small heads and possible neurological damage, sparking international concern.

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