Microsporidia


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Related to Microsporidia: cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon bieneusi

Microsporidia

 

an order of protozoans of the class Cnidosporidia. There are more than 20 genera, comprising more than 300 species. They are intracellular parasites of animals, predominantly arthropods and fish. Microsporidian amoeboids reproduce asexually (by simple division and schizogony) in the cell cytoplasm of the animal host. After the sexual process (autogamy), formation of spores (sporogony) begins. The spores are usually oval (2–10 microns in length) and have a spirally wound polar thread that serves to embed the parasite in the tissue of a new host.

Microsporidians cause diseases, microsporidioses, in various animals. For example, microsporidians of the genus Nosema are the causative agents of nosematoses, and Nosema cuniculi is possibly the cause of the human disease multiple sclerosis. Many species of Microsporidia are parasites of fish and commercial arthropods. More than 100 species are beneficial as parasites of harmful arthropods, since they cause their mass destruction; the possibility of using these species for the biological control of pests is being investigated.

REFERENCES

Zhiznzhivotnykh, vol. 1. Moscow, 1968.
Weiser, J. Die Mikrosporidien als Parasiten der Insekten. Hamburg-Berlin, 1961. I. V. Issi
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This is also probably the first evidence of the interaction between microsporidia and decapod crustaceans via the vertical transmission strategy, indicating the ecological impact of these parasites in aquatic ecosystems.
For example, Microsporidia clade had the fewest genes by contrast to the metazoans, which have the highest number of recovered genes per species.
The researchers detected some left-behind nuclear genes in supposed ancients, such as Giardia, Trichomonas and some microsporidia.
Congruent evidence from alphatubulin and beta-tubulin gene phylogenies for a zygomycete origin of microsporidia. Fungal Genet Biol.
Microsporidia have been reported to cause necrotic lesions in the adrenal glands, particularly in patients with AIDS [55].
Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Microsporidia are enteropathogenic parasites of humans and animals, producing asymptomatic to severe intestinal infections [1, 2].
The protein found in lower fungi (Nosema ceranae, Microsporidia) was also excluded by the program, which might be expected as well.
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular microorganisms that infect a wide range of invertebrate and vertebrate species [1].
Variability in minimal genomes; Analysis of tandem repeats in the microsporidia Encephalitozoon intestinalis.
In the last two decades, the scientific community has recognized the Microsporidia importance and associated it with serious infections in immunocompromised patients.
South American native bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) infected by Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia), an emerging pathogen of honeybees (Apis mellifera).