Middle Horde

Middle Horde

 

(Russian, Srednii Zhuz), a group of Kazakh clans and tribes that once occupied what is now northern, central, northeastern, and eastern Kazakhstan.

The Middle Horde emerged in the early 16th century. The lands it held had long been a major ethnic center, the home of the tribal unions of the Alani and other peoples. Once formed, the Middle Horde included the tribes of the Kipchaks and the Argyn, Naiman, Kerait, Uak, and Kongrat.

The population of the Middle Horde consisted primarily of nomadic stock raisers. The southern part of the Middle Horde gravitated toward the settled agricultural centers of Middle Asia, and the northern and northeastern parts toward Siberia. The Kazakhs exchanged animal products for grain, handicrafts, and manufactured goods. At various times, warring feudal khanates arose in the lands of the Middle Horde. Increasing economic links between Russia and the Middle Horde and raids and pillaging by the feudal lords of Dzungaria hastened the entry of the Kazakhs of the Middle Horde into the Russian state in the 1740’s. In the 19th century the Kazakh population of the Middle Horde numbered more than 1 million.

REFERENCE

Istoriia Kazakhskoi SSR, vol. 1. Alma-Ata, 1957.
References in periodicals archive ?
Lesser Horde and the Middle Horde is vital from the authority of the Russians, as Abul Kher who belong to the khans of the Lesser Horde looked for the Russians aid in 1730 and they wanted to have as a time-being supporters of the powerful Kalmyks whereas in reaction to this Russians did take control of the Middle Horde by 1798 and the Great Horde established as an independent organization till the 1820s.
For recent studies that describe the violence and socioeconomic dislocation that resulted from intense peasant settlement in nomadic areas in the late imperial period, see Daniel Brower, "Kyrgyz Nomads and Russian Pioneers: Colonization and Ethnic Conflict in the Turkestan Revolt of 1916," Jahrbucher fur Geschichte Osteuropas (44) 1996 #1: 41-53; and Virginia Martin, "Law and Custom in the Steppe: Middle Horde Kazakh Judicial Practices and Russian Colonial Rule, 1868-1898" (Unpublished PhD.
For similar reasons, one may suppose, Russian researchers of the first half of the 19th century characterized the territories of the Little and Middle Hordes (the northern, western, and central parts of Kazakhstan) as the "Kirgiz-Kazak hordes and steppes" (kirgiz-kaisatskie ordy i stepi) but regarded the southern portions of the Kazakh steppe, controlled by the khanates of Kokand and Khiva and the emirate of Bukhara, as part of "Middle Asia.