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Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They inhabit Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Massachusetts, and Maine. French missionaries came into contact with them in the early 17th cent., and the Mi'kmaqs were allies of the French throughout the history of New France. Contact with Europeans did not have the usual effect of tribal disintegration, and the Mi'kmaqs still thrive, though their culture has changed radically. Many are Roman Catholics. The Mi'kmaqs are expert canoeists, and, although their economy once centered on fishing and hunting, they now derive their income primarily from agriculture. In Canada, Mi'kmaq attempts to assert their treaty rights with respect to fishing have been a source of tensions in the 21st cent. In 1990 there were over 15,000 Mi'kmaq in Canada. Another 2,700 Mi'kmaq live in the United States, the only federally recognized band being the Aroostook in Maine.


See W. D. and R. S. Wallis, The Micmac Indians of Eastern Canada (1955); J. F. Pratson, Land of the Four Directions (1970).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Addressing the alleged violation of article 25(a), (52) the Human Rights Committee concluded that constitutional conferences constitute a conduct of public affairs, but that the Mikmaq tribal society's rights had not been violated.
First, the Acadians were ecumenical Catholics, and their faith dictated a certain view of the Other that predisposed them toward developing close relationships with their Mikmaq neighbors.
With the Human Rights Commission report, the group has what FNI president Brendan Sheppard called a document that "could help the entire Mikmaq community in the future.
Since Newfoundland joined Canada in 1949, the Mikmaq people have been denied status as Aboriginal people.