Miletus


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Miletus

(mīlē`təs), ancient seaport of W Asia Minor, in Caria, on the mainland not far from Sámos. It was occupied by Greeks in the settlement of the E Aegean (c.1000 B.C.) and became one of the principal cities of Ionia. From the 8th cent. B.C. it led in colonization, especially on the Black Sea. The Milesians were strong enough to resist the Lydian kings and were not molested by the Persians. In 499 B.C., however, they stirred up the revolt of Ionian Greeks against Persia; the Persians sacked the city (494 B.C.). Although less flourishing, Miletus remained an important seaport until the harbor silted up early in the Christian era. Miletus produced some of the earliest Greek philosophers, including Thales and Anaximander. The site was excavated by German archaeologists.

Miletus

 

an ancient city in Ionia at the mouth of the Maeander River in Asia Minor.

Greeks first appeared in Miletus in the 16th century B.C. In the 14th century it was an important Achaean city with massive walls. Around the beginning of the first millennium B.C. a new wave of Greeks, the lonians, settled in Miletus. According to ancient tradition, lonians from Attica led by Neleus, son of King Codrus of Athens, settled there circa 1100 B.C. From the eighth to sixth centuries Miletus was a polis (city-state) and an important trade, artisan, and cultural center. It played a major role in the settling of Greeks on the shores of the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Colonists from Miletus founded Cyzicus, Sinope, Abydos, Istrus (Istria), Olbia, Panticapaeum, Theodosia, and numerous other cities. In the sixth century B.C. Miletus engendered the Miletian, or Ionian, school of natural philosophy (Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes). The logographer Hecataeus lived in Miletus.

Miletus reached the zenith of its glory during the tyranny of Thrasybulus (c. 610–600 B.C.). In the middle of the sixth century B.C. the city came under Persian rule. Circa 500 B.C. Miletus headed a revolt of Ionian cities against Persian sovereignty. After its defeat in 494, the city was destroyed by the Persians. In 479 its restoration was begun, and in 478 it became a member of the Delian League. Between 411 and 402 B.C., Miletus acquired a gridiron plan (Hippodamian plan) and became one of the best examples of ancient city construction. After the Peloponnesian War (431–04 B.C.), Miletus again fell under Persian rule. In 334 B.C. it was captured by Alexander the Great, and in 129 B.C. it came under Roman rule. During the Hellenistic and Roman periods Miletus preserved its commercial importance and played a major cultural role.

Systematic excavations of Miletus have been conducted intermittently by German archaeologists (T. Wiegand and others) since the early 20th century. The findings have revealed that the center of Miletus comprised three agoras: the northern agora with a bouleuterion (175–164 B.C.), a sanctuary to Apollo of Delphi (sixth century B.C.), and other buildings; the southern agora; and the western agora with an Ionic temple of Athena (fourth century B.C.). Several thermae, among them the Baths of Faustina (second and third centuries A.D.), have also been discovered.

REFERENCES

Kobyiina, M. M. Milet. Moscow, 1965.
Milet: Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen…, vols. 1–17. Edited by G. Kleiner, T. Wiegand, et al. Berlin, 1906–68.
Freeman, K. Greek City-States. London, 1950.
Kleiner, G. Alt-Milet. Wiesbaden, 1966.

Miletus

an ancient city on the W coast of Asia Minor: a major Ionian centre of trade and learning in the ancient world
References in periodicals archive ?
By 499 BC Miletus and the other Ionians who had helped Darius cross the Danube now broke out into armed revolt against him, with Miletus' exiled ruler Aristagoras appealing both to Sparta and Athens for help.
While the second option is certainly possible but difficult to prove, the first one is supported by a general mood conveyed by Chariton's text: this novelist likes arousing sexual desire with his writing, as it happens with Callirhoe's bath in Miletus (2.2.1-4).
Allusions to it are, however, included in the scene that follows the sack of Miletus, when Alexander seizes Barsine as part of the city's spoils.
He resided in Miletus, on the coast of Asia Minor, in the 6th century BC, and like his teacher Thales, he abandoned mythological concepts of the universe and speculated about its physical nature.
But it was the distinguished architect, Hippodamos of Miletus, who designed a new city on a grid plan approximately three kilometres long and one kilometre wide.
It was his place of residence and his strategic headquarters in the later 460s.(3) Probably the Persian expectation was that he would use it as a base of operations against Delian League interests in and around Miletus. Magnesia also provided Themistocles with the wherewithal to keep himself and his family in the style to which Artaxerxes presumably felt he should become accustomed.
The present study was aimed at examining the role of hypothalamic neuropeptides genes expressions on body mass regulation under different photoperiods in Eothenomys miletus, body mass, food intake, serum leptin levels and hypothalamic neuropeptide neuropeptide Y (NPY), Agouti related peptide (AgRP), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) expressions were measured.
Although the Anabasis is normally thought of as a source text for elements of Chariton only once Chaereas and Callirhoe head inland on their separate journeys from Miletus at the end of Book 4, (9) its presence can actually be detected quite early on.
According to Greek historian Herodotus, this eclipse had been predicted by 6th-century Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus. Herodotus tells us that the Lydians and the Medes were engaged in a bitter battle at the time but were so frightened by the sudden fall of darkness that they signed a peace treaty then and there.
Effects of cold acclimation on body mass, serum leptin level, energy metabolism and thermognesis in Eothenomys miletus in Hengduan Mountains region.
The most remarkable example is picked up by BostPouderon from a political speech belonging, I note, to a historical novel, that of Chariton: Chaereas in a speech to his fellow-citizens of Syracuse tells them that they have another little fellow-citizen, his own son, who is being brought up in Miletus. He uses the term polites, on which Bost-Pouderon rightly comments that it seems to be a highly significant term.
Herodotus claimed Thales of Miletus "foretold the loss of daylight" in 585 B.C.