Military Geography


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Geography, Military

 

the study of current military-political, military-economic, and physical-geographic conditions and the analysis of the operational organization of possible land and sea theaters of military actions and of particular strategic regions and countries, as well as of the influence of these factors on preparation for and conduct of military actions.

Military-political and military-economic conditions include the military blocs and alliances and their political directions, the primary centers of political tension, the foreign and domestic policy of states, political parties, the population and its political condition and morale, mobilization and labor resources, the economic condition and military-economic potential of particular countries and coalitions of states, the primary power and industrial centers of strategic and operational importance and their vulnerability, the degree of dependence of production on the import of strategic materials, and the possibilities for use of local resources (food, building materials, and means of transportation) and repair of combat equipment and weapons on the spot.

Physical-geographic conditions are investigated in order to learn their influence on the concentration, movement, and deployment of troops and on maneuverability; to determine possibilities for creating floods, destruction, and fires; and to establish the defense of directions and regions most advantageous for use by combat arms and equipment. During study of the operational organization of a territory (missile sites, airfields, navy bases, ports, fortifications, various obstacles, lines of communication, storage areas), the possibilities of stationing large units of the various armed services and the conditions for their logistic supply are determined. The armed forces of other countries are studied from the point of view of determining size, structure, technical equipment, principles of army composition, and the morale and fighting qualities of the personnel.

As a military discipline military geography includes general principles and the military geography of particular countries and theaters of military actions. Sea and ocean theaters are studied by naval geography, which investigates the conditions indicated above in the interest of using naval forces and means.

M. F. SHIROKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Saying that the borders for the country's airspace and territorial waters are the same, Fakhri recounted that these borders are set 12 miles off the countries' coastlines, and calculated by the Military Geography Department of Armed Forces.
Her research interests concern more-than-human geographies, critical military geography and embodied experiences of conflict with a focus on deceptive desert warfare in the Second World War.
Collins, Military Geography for Military Professionals and the Public (Washington, D.C: Potomac Books, Inc.), 3.
Forward-basing US and other NATO air units into those countries if hostilities were either imminent or under way, given the realities of military geography and the balance of forces in the region, would be imprudent to say the least.
As Colonel Kirby implored, "the study of military geography must become as much a part of our professional development as tactical support, engineering design, and project management." (9) Whereas Field Manual 90-7 supposes that "the technology used to create obstacles may continue to become more complex," terrain is still one of the most significant assets that commanders have at their disposal.
Modern Military Geography is a thoroughly readable presentation by subject matter experts on contemporary and historical military subjects from the viewpoint of the geographer.
The text opens with chapters introducing fundamental military and geographic concepts to non-military professionals and non-geographers, respectively, and reviewing the history, scope, and recent developments within military geography in the US, including new thinking on the relationships between environmental security and regional stability and between climate change and potential regional instability in the Arctic.
For example, some of the effects attributed to level of development are better explained by military geography, especially the Entente's ability to blockade Germany and Austria-Hungary while maintaining its own international trade.
In this military geography, the globe, as one writer from Canada's DRB wrote, was a 'mosaic of military regions within which the terrain elements are reasonably homogeneous or have similar diversification of environmental factors relevant to the military problem under consideration' (La Rocque 1953, 72; see also Bryan 1948; Goodspeed 1958).
(58.) See the discussion of military operations and environmental concerns in Jacobs, J A, Janse van Rensburg, H S and H A P Smit, "Military Geography in South Africa at the Dawn of the 21st Century", South African Geographical Journal, Vol 82, No 2, 2002, pp 195-198.
The artwork was found in a building shared by the Institute of Military Geography and the Santissima Annunziata Monastery.
The main message of his provocative chapter, that "the military geography of the region is changing" (p.

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