various types of food from animal milk that are used for supplementary and artificial feeding of infants. Milk formulas are divided into three principal groups: simple, sour, and complex (or caloric). Simple milk formulas are obtained by diluting milk with water or cereal water. If it is diluted with water, the mixture is designated by number (1, 2, or 3); if it is diluted with rice, buckwheat, or oat water, the mixture is designated by letter: A (one-third milk and two-thirds cereal water), B (one-half milk and one-half cereal water), and C (two-thirds milk and one-third cereal water). By diluting milk its protein, fat, and carbohydrate content is decreased; the carbohydrate content is increased by adding sugar (up to 5 percent). Because of their low caloric content, formulas 1 and A are not currently used; formula 2 or B is prescribed for a short time (four or five days) for infants from four to six weeks old.
Sourmilk formulas are suggested to increase the absorption of the basic components of cow’s milk. They produce an acid reaction, which inhibits the growth of bacteria and increases fat absorption; the fine-flake curdling of the casein significantly facilitates digestion and absorption. The most common sourmilk formulas are kefir and kefir dilutions. Kefir, which is usually diluted with rice, buckwheat, or oat water, is designated according to the degree of dilution as B-kefir or C-kefir.
For feeding an infant at home, the following dry formulas are manufactured:C-rice, C-oat, and C-buckwheat. These formulas contain one part cereal water (or rice, oat, or buckwheat flour) and two parts milk powder; powdered sugar is also added. Milk formulas prepared from dry milk products are well assimilated and have the same nutritional and flavor qualities as formulas prepared from fresh milk.
Manufacture has been perfected of the milk formulas Maliutka, which is for newborn and premature infants, and Malysh, which is for infants from one or two months to one year old. They are made from the same milk base but differ in carbohydrate and salt content. These milk formulas are adapted to the physiological requirements and digestive needs of the youngest children owing to special processing of the milk base (homogenization, vacuum drying, and powdering); the addition of vegetable oil, cream, fat- and water-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, C, PP, Be), and iron glycerophosphate; and the use of flour (Malysh) and Dextri-maltose and citric-acid salts of potassium and sodium (Maliutka). Complex, or caloric, milk formulas, prepared from milk, oil, fried flour, and sugar in varying proportions, are no longer used.
Many milk formulas are made to maximally approach the composition of human milk and are used to feed children who suffer from exudative diathesis, hypotrophy, indigestion, or anemia. Milk formulas are distributed principally at infant feeding centers.
REFERENCESpravochnik po dietike detei rannego vozrasta, 7th ed. Edited by A. F. Tur. Leningrad, 1959.
E. CH. NOVIKOVA