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(in Russian, kovsh), in mining and construction machinery, a device for gripping and removing a portion of the earth (rock, material, and so on) from the matrix and moving it to the unloading area. The bucket should cut easily into the material being worked (for this the bucket may have a cutting edge, usually with teeth), and it should be sufficiently strong and durable. In addition, it should be easily filled and emptied. The buckets are attached to chains (chain-and-bucket excavators and loaders, bucket dredges, and drags), a rotor (rotary excavators), arms (power shovels and loaders), or a bucket frame or are suspended from a bearing structure of draglines and clamshells by chains and cables. The force necessary for cutting or digging up the material being worked is imparted to the buckets through these devices. The buckets may be cast, welded, or stamped. The buckets are usually unloaded on the side of the cutting edge or by opening the bottom, less frequently by forcing the earth out with a special scraper or a movable rear wall.
The bucket capacity of a mechanical shovel ranges from 0.15 to 200 eu m; for chain bucket excavators, 0.007 to 7 cu m; for single-bucket loaders, 0.07 to 30 cu m; for multibucket loaders, 0.005 to 0.1 cu m; for scrapers, 0.75 to 60 cu m; and for dredges, 0.05 to 1 cu m. Multibucket loaders, excavators, and dredges usually have 12 to 50 buckets; rotary excavators, six to 18.
The rotor blades of a bucket hydraulic turbine may also be called buckets. Elevators and conveyers may also be equipped with monorail buckets.
the working element (scoop) of a scraper unit equipped with a cableway, used in excavating, transporting, and similar operations above the ground, underground, and underwater. The bucket is moved by a winch with a block and tackle.
REFERENCESDombrovskii, N. G. and M. I. Gal’perin. Zemleroino-transportnye mashiny. Moscow, 1965.
See also references under EXCAVATING MACHINES.