Mine Surveying Operations

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Mine Surveying Operations


(in Russian, marksheiderskaia s”emka), work performed to determine the rectangular spatial coordinates of various points on the earth’s surface and within mineral deposits to compile charts for graphical mine documentation. The subjects of mine surveying operations are the terrain and condition of the earth’s surface, natural and man-made exposures of rock, and the mouths of mining and exploratory excavations; mine workings that are in progress (during the exploration and exploitation of deposits); elements of the geologic structure of the deposits; points at which samples were taken; boundaries of dangerous areas; and structures and various types of communication of mining excavations.

The fundamental principle of mine surveying operations is the consistent transition from general, more precise geometric constructions to particular, less precise constructions; correspondingly, the surveying process includes the construction of plane and elevation reference grids on the earth’s surface and in mine workings, construction of survey grids, and the surveying work (actual determination of the coordinates of particular points). The basic methods used in mine surveying operations are aerial, surface, and underground stereophotogrammetry; sonar, light, and radar location; plane-table, tachymetric, and polar and orthogonal theodolite surveying; area leveling; and combined methods. Underground reference grids are oriented by geometrical, optical, or gyroscopic means. The grid is centered by means of a plumb. In vertical mine workings, elevations are measured by means of length gauges, a long mine measuring tape or wire, or an optical range finder.

The final result of mine surveying operations is charts used for mine documentation. The entire process of compilation consists of three stages: determination of the spatial coordinates of the points, computation and mathematical processing of the results of measurements, and graphic work to compile the charts. The precision and scale of mine surveying operations are governed by technical regulations.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.