The circulating aldosterone, whose classical targets are kidney epithelium, colon and salivary glands, overpasses the plasma membrane of such tissues and binds to the cytoplasmic mineralocorticoid
The resultant decline in cortisol and its feedback inhibition on pituitary ACTH will lead to an increase in ACTH release in order to bring cortisol production to normal levels and so leading to overstimulation of the steroid synthetic pathway at the expense of excess formation and accumulation of steroid precursors prior to the enzymatic block of 17[alpha]-hydroxylase and their products, particularly mineralocorticoids
precursors (11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone), as well as hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex.
Typical Addison's, often called primary Addison's, is caused by adrenal dysfunction that creates both glucocorti-coid and mineralocorticoid
The synthetic glucocorticoids are classified by their anti-inflammatory power, half life, and mineralocorticoid
effect; they operate in almost every cell through genomic and non genomic mechanisms of action producing different responses.
Addison's disease (named after the 19th century British physician who first described the condition in humans) is a comparatively rare feline disorder marked by the inadequate secretion of glucocorticoids and, in some cases, mineralocorticoids
In addition, diverse contraindications, restrictions of application, interactions, and at times significant adverse reactions must be taken into account for instance in the drug treatment with mineralocorticoids
These may be traced to use of laxatives, diuretics, mineralocorticoids
, amphotericin B, or lithium.
Surgery usually is preferred in patients with incidentalomas and excess levels of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids
, adrenal sex hormones, or catecholamines.
We have also demonstrated that steroid synthesis and secretion of both mineralocorticoids
and glucocorticoids can be studied in adrenal slice cultures.
Aldosterone belongs to a class of hormones called mineralocorticoids
, also produced by the adrenal glands.
Thus, selective hydroxylase inhibition causes build-up of progestogens and mineralocorticoids
and reduction in cortisol levels in CRPC patients, resulting in secondary mineralocorticoid
excess (ME), a clinical syndrome including edema, hypokalemia and hypertension.