Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to Mineralocorticoids: Glucocorticoids



hormones of the adrenal cortex that belong to the corticosteroid group and affect mainly the exchange of Na+ and K+ ions in an organism. Human adrenal glands secrete 0.15–0.4 mg daily of aldosterone, the principal mineralocorticoid. Another mineralocorticoid, desoxycorticosterone, is an intermediate product of the biosynthesis of corticosterone and possibly of aldosterone. Mineralocorticosteroids regulate the elimination of electrolytes by the kidneys, thereby promoting the reabsorption of Na+ by the renal tubules and reducing the reabsorption of K+.

An excess of mineralocorticosteroids leads to an increase of Na+ in the blood, which causes water retention and edema. An insufficiency of mineralocorticosteroids leads to the increased elimination of Na+ with the urine, causing increased excretion of water and tissue dehydration.


Bersin, T. Biokhimiia gormonov. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from German.)
Glaz, E., and P. Vecsei. Aldosterone. Oxford, 1971.
References in periodicals archive ?
Depending on the severity of the mutation, 21-hydroxylase deficiency ultimately leads to variable degrees of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency due to the inability to produce cortisol and aldosterone, respectively (Fig.
Although hypertension develops in 70 to 80% of patients with Cushing syndrome, it is seen in only 15 to 20% of patients treated with high-dose synthetic corticosteroids, which have less mineralocorticoid activity than cortisol.
Different isozymes of mouse 11 beta-hydroxylase produce mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids.
As a result, often both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones are lacking.
Adrenal extracts are manufactured from raw cow, pig, or sheep adrenal glands; whether or not such extracts provide exogenous mineralocorticoids is unclear.
The adrenal glands synthesize glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, and a reduction in StAR expression in the adrenal gland may affect carbohydrate metabolism, immune system function, and water balance.
These are divided into two families, the glucocorticoids and the mineralocorticoids.
Non-selective inhibitors can disrupt the hydroxylase reaction leading to an increase in steroids such as the mineralocorticoids and a decrease in other essential steroids such as cortisol.
The ratio of cortisol and cortisone is another important indicator of adrenal function, as are the mineralocorticoids: low mineralocorticoids are a clear indicator of chronic adrenal fatigue and are an excellent marker to monitor adrenal recovery with treatment.
CAH may present with variety of clinical findings, such as virilization of the affected infants, signs of androgen excess, salt-wasting crisis secondary to aldosterone deficiency, or hormonal hypertension attributable to increased mineralocorticoids.
In addition, diverse contraindications, restrictions of application, interactions, and at times significant adverse reactions must be taken into account for instance in the drug treatment with mineralocorticoids or sympathomimetics.
Surgery is usually the preferred treatment in patients with incidentalomas and excess levels of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, adrenal sex hormones, or catecholamines.