Mineralocorticoids


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Related to Mineralocorticoids: Glucocorticoids

Mineralocorticoids

 

hormones of the adrenal cortex that belong to the corticosteroid group and affect mainly the exchange of Na+ and K+ ions in an organism. Human adrenal glands secrete 0.15–0.4 mg daily of aldosterone, the principal mineralocorticoid. Another mineralocorticoid, desoxycorticosterone, is an intermediate product of the biosynthesis of corticosterone and possibly of aldosterone. Mineralocorticosteroids regulate the elimination of electrolytes by the kidneys, thereby promoting the reabsorption of Na+ by the renal tubules and reducing the reabsorption of K+.

An excess of mineralocorticosteroids leads to an increase of Na+ in the blood, which causes water retention and edema. An insufficiency of mineralocorticosteroids leads to the increased elimination of Na+ with the urine, causing increased excretion of water and tissue dehydration.

REFERENCES

Bersin, T. Biokhimiia gormonov. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from German.)
Glaz, E., and P. Vecsei. Aldosterone. Oxford, 1971.
References in periodicals archive ?
It's important to know that these changes are in typical hypoadrenocorticism, in which both Cortisol and mineralocorticoid levels are low.
Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism in the treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy: a pilot study.
Because of low salt content in breast milk and infant formulas and mineralocorticoid resistance in the immature infant kidney, sodium chloride supplements at 1-2 gm/day (17-34 mEq per day) distributed in several feedings are given in the newborn period and up to the age of 8-12 months when salt intake from diet is sufficient [5, 34].
Jaisser, "Aldosterone, mineralocorticoid receptor, and heart failure," Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol.
Clinical presentation may be mild or severe depending on the degree of impairment of enzyme activity and there may be signs, symptoms and laboratory findings of cortisol deficiency, mineralocorticoid deficiency or excess, undervirilization or androgen excess in males and sexual infantilism or virilization in affected females.
Both the 24-hour Urine Hormone Profile and the Dry Urine Profile measure both cortisone and Cortisol as well as a number of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid metabolites.
The decreased secretion of renin caused by the negative feedback due to increased mineralocorticoid levels is due to the increase in DOCA (1,2).
Massive supplementation with [K.sup.+] and [Mg.sup.2+] is modestly effective, but drugs used to reduce renal electrolyte losses (amiloride, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists) are poorly tolerated, as they often exacerbate hypotension through enhancing natriuresis.
Treatment of CAH involves providing replacement of deficient steroid hormones like glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone or prednisolone or dexamethasone) and mineralocorticoids (fludrocortisone).
The use of mineralocorticoids can also decrease sweat electrolyte concentrations, (8) so patients on such medications should have testing deferred.