Ming


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Ming

(mĭng), dynasty of China that ruled from 1368 to 1644. The first Ming emperor, Chu Yüan-chang (ruled 1368–98), a former Buddhist monk, joined a rebellion in progress, gained control of it, overthrew the Mongol YüanYüan
, Mongol dynasty of China that ruled from 1271 to 1368. It was a division of the great empire conquered by the Mongols. Kublai Khan, who adopted the Chinese dynastic name Yüan in 1271, swept down from N China, which the Mongols had ruled since the 1230s, and
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 dynasty, and unified all of China proper. He set up a strong, centralized government and carried out economic recovery programs. He abolished the office of prime minister, thereby strengthening the autocratic power of the emperor. The emperor Yung Lo (reigned 1402–24) moved (1421) the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, which developed into a magnificent city. The dynasty, which never created a viable taxation policy, always had fiscal problems. Seven great naval expeditions, under the command of the Grand Eunuch Cheng Ho, were sent at considerable cost to SE Asia, India, the Persian Gulf, and E Africa for tribute and trade (1405–33). These voyages ceased in 1433 and never resumed. Christian missionaries penetrated the Chinese hinterlands, and Europeans, such as Matteo RicciRicci, Matteo
, 1552–1610, Italian missionary to China. He entered the Society of Jesus, and in Rome he studied under Clavius. Ricci was sent to the Indies (1578), and he worked at Goa and Cochin until 1582, when he was called to Macau to enter China.
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, brought Western ideas to the Ming court. The Ming was generally a period of stability and prosperity. There were notable achievements in literature, philosophy, and the arts. Wang Yang-ming (1472–1529), the great Ming neo-Confucian philosopher, developed an activist approach to moral training and self-cultivation. The huge Yung-lo Encyclopedia (Yung-lo ta-tien), which included all major works in Confucian classics, history, philosophy, and miscellaneous subjects, was compiled in the early 15th cent. Four great novels, The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, The Water Margin (All Men Are Brothers), Journey to the West, and The Golden Lotus, were written in this period. Drama in the Southern style, painting, and architecture reached great heights. The delicate monochromatic porcelain of the Ming period is often considered the finest achievement of Chinese ceramics. Incompetent emperors, oppressive taxation, and factionalism in government in the later years of the dynasty incited revolts among peasants in the border regions and prepared the way for the Manchu conquest of China (see Ch'ingCh'ing
or Manchu
, the last of the Imperial dynasties of China. Background

The Ch'ing dynasty was established by the Manchus, who invaded China and captured Beijing in 1644, and lasted until 1911.
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).

Bibliography

See R. Huang, 1587: A Year of No Significance (1981); F. F. Mote and D. Twitchett, ed., The Cambridge History of China (Vol. 7, 1988).

Ming

 

Chinese imperial dynasty (1368–1644). Founded by Chu Yuan-chang upon the overthrow of the Mongol Yuan dynasty.

In the early 15th century, the Ming dynasty pursued a course of external expansion. In 1407, Chinese troops seized Vietnam. Seven naval expeditions under the command of Cheng Ho were dispatched to regions of the South Seas and the Indian Ocean. As a result of attempts by the Portuguese to establish themselves in China, the Ming emperor Wu Tsung in 1521 forbade Europeans entry to China and closed all ports to them, with the exception of Aomen (Macao).

The aggravation of social contradictions and the growth of class struggle under the Ming dynasty led to a peasant war in the 1620’s. The rebels, led by Li Tzu-ch’eng, took possession of the capital in Peking in 1644 and overthrew the Ming dynasty. A portion of China’s feudal nobility went over to the side of the Manchus, who were at that time invading China, and aided them in crushing the peasant rebellion and in establishing the Manchurian Ch’ing dynasty in China.

Toward the end of Ming rule, the first contacts between Russia and China were established, including the dispatch of I. Petlin to Peking by the Tobol’sk voevoda (military governor) in 1618.

N. I. SVISTUNOVA

Ming

1. the imperial dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644
2. of or relating to Chinese porcelain produced during the Ming dynasty, characterized by the use of brilliant colours and a fine-quality body
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While still in high school, Ming was on the UP swimming team and was the 1943 Manila girls' badminton singles runner-up.
Yang Ming will also be using ECO Insight to manage their EU MRV reporting.
Perhaps one criticism of this much-needed translation and introduction to Wu Yubi is that it might provide a better sense as to how he fits into the intellectual world of fifteenth-century Ming China.
Ming Yang Wind said that the share portion of the purchase consideration will comprise 28,861,709 ordinary shares in Ming Yangwhich are to be newly issued at USD 3.
Aronson based the book on extensive interviews with Ming and Betsy (like her husband, known affectionately to all by her first name), as well as with many colleagues and collaborators.
According to Hsin-Yi Yang, Wang had no knowledge of how the belief in Lo Ming got its start in Yingge, but that he did have a wealth of interesting facts that he wished to share about how Lo Ming is worshiped in general.
Every chance I got, I'd joke with Kamee and make her know that we all care about her," Ming said.
Chuanwei Zhang, chairman and chief executive officer of Ming Yang, said, 'This is a milestone in meeting international quality standards and is an important step towards internationalisation.
Additionally, the collection will include two cookbooks, "Simply Ming One-Pot Meals" and "Simply Ming in Your Kitchen," featuring many of his East-West favorites.
Ming Tsai is the James Beard Award-winning chef/owner of two restaurants - Blue Ginger and Blue Dragon.
Mr Ming, who suffered from Parkinson's Disease, passed away last week in hospital.