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(mĭsh`nə), in Judaism, codified collection of Oral Law—legal interpretations of portions of the biblical books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy and other legal material. Together with the Gemara, or Amoraic commentary on the Mishna, it comprises the TalmudTalmud
[Aramaic from Heb.,=learning], in Judaism, vast compilation of the Oral Law with rabbinical elucidations, elaborations, and commentaries, in contradistinction to the Scriptures or Written Laws. The Talmud is the accepted authority for Orthodox Jews everywhere.
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. Next to the Scriptures the Mishna is the basic textbook of Jewish life and thought, and is traditionally considered to be an integral part of the Torah revealed to Moses on Mount Sinai. The sifting and recording of the body of oral interpretations of biblical law was the work of the TannaimTannaim
[plural of Aramaic tanna,=one who studies or teaches], Jewish sages of the period from Hillel to the compilation of the Mishna. They functioned as both scholars and teachers, educating those in the synagogues as well as in the academies.
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, the final compilation being made during the rule of Judah ha-NasiJudah ha-Nasi
, c.135–c.220, Palestinian Jewish communal leader (tanna). He occupied the office of patriarch (nasi) which was reestablished by the Romans after 135.
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. The Mishna is divided into six Orders (Sedarim): Zeraim [seeds], laws pertaining to agriculture; Moed [seasons], laws concerning observation of the Sabbath and festivals; Nashim [women], laws regarding vows, marriage, and divorce; Nezikim [damages], laws concerning civil and criminal matters; Kodashim [holy things], laws regulating ritual slaughter, sacrifice, and holy objects; and Tohorot [purities], laws regarding ceremonial purity. Each Order is divided into tractates, which in turn are divided into chapters. These contain paragraphs called mishnayyot. The penultimate tractate of the fourth Order is called Avot or Pirke Avot [chapters of the fathers], and unlike much of the rest of the Mishna consists of general moral and religious sayings. In addition to those rulings accepted as law, the Mishna records contrary opinions and discussions among the rabbis.


See translation by H. Danby (1958); L. Ginzberg, Studies in the Origin of the Mishnah (1920); J. Neusner, A History of Mishnaic Law (1974) and Judaism: The Evidence of the Mishnah (1981).

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References in periodicals archive ?
And, perhaps more important, why did Mishna and the central administration choose to protect Bhuyan and instead lay on a series workshops as a big public relations exercise?
(7) De la raiz hebrea gmar, que significa "concluir, terminar", en el sentido de "completar", que es lo que justamente hace la Guemara, considerada como el comentario de la Mishna.
Mishna searches for an identity in her broken home, her snobby, mostly white prep school, and--most restrictive of all--her longing heart." CATHLEEN MEDWICK
For this reason, the Mishna (Ibid.: 61:2) relieves women from working with linen, because it requires to endlessly place the linen threads in her mouth to moisten them with her saliva, and "Nor may he compel her to work in flax because flax causes one's mouth to be sore and makes one's lips stiff." Rabbi Hiyya, who said that "A wife [should be taken] mainly for the sake of her beauty" and also "A wife is mainly for the wearing of a woman's finery," did not intend to disparage women's intellectual skills or mental attributes.
In contrast, other instructors may consider themselves and the students to be mutual contributors to the classroom dynamics and encourage an open dialogue about the process (Mishna & Rasmussen, 2001).
(19) See Ramban to BT Bava Batra 55a; Magid Mishna to MT Hilchot Gezela 5:13; Maharik Shoresh 66; Ritva and Nimukei Yosef to BT Nedarim 83; Meiri to BT Bava Kama 113b; and TaShBeTz 1:155.
Abrams (Director of Maqom: A School for Talmud Study) is an insightful and informative introduction to the management one's Judaic scriptures, paring the weekly Torah with selections of Mishna and Talmuns, as well as other scripts.
It also helps nurses discover the differences in perceptions between adults and children (Mishna, Antle, & Regehr, 2004).
The Bible is referred to as the Written Law, as contrasted with the Oral Law, a set of rabbinic commentaries on the Bible including the Mishna and Gemara, which together constitute the Talmud.
It is solely based on theological interpretation of the "Thorah" and on the "Talmudic" 'Mishna' set forth in the 3rd century by Rabi Juda Hadushen.
Pococke's edition [1655] of Maimonides on the Mishna was the first Hebrew text from the press" (95).