Mishna


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Related to Mishna: Midrash, Talmud

Mishna

(mĭsh`nə), in Judaism, codified collection of Oral Law—legal interpretations of portions of the biblical books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy and other legal material. Together with the Gemara, or Amoraic commentary on the Mishna, it comprises the TalmudTalmud
[Aramaic from Heb.,=learning], in Judaism, vast compilation of the Oral Law with rabbinical elucidations, elaborations, and commentaries, in contradistinction to the Scriptures or Written Laws. The Talmud is the accepted authority for Orthodox Jews everywhere.
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. Next to the Scriptures the Mishna is the basic textbook of Jewish life and thought, and is traditionally considered to be an integral part of the Torah revealed to Moses on Mount Sinai. The sifting and recording of the body of oral interpretations of biblical law was the work of the TannaimTannaim
[plural of Aramaic tanna,=one who studies or teaches], Jewish sages of the period from Hillel to the compilation of the Mishna. They functioned as both scholars and teachers, educating those in the synagogues as well as in the academies.
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, the final compilation being made during the rule of Judah ha-NasiJudah ha-Nasi
, c.135–c.220, Palestinian Jewish communal leader (tanna). He occupied the office of patriarch (nasi) which was reestablished by the Romans after 135.
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. The Mishna is divided into six Orders (Sedarim): Zeraim [seeds], laws pertaining to agriculture; Moed [seasons], laws concerning observation of the Sabbath and festivals; Nashim [women], laws regarding vows, marriage, and divorce; Nezikim [damages], laws concerning civil and criminal matters; Kodashim [holy things], laws regulating ritual slaughter, sacrifice, and holy objects; and Tohorot [purities], laws regarding ceremonial purity. Each Order is divided into tractates, which in turn are divided into chapters. These contain paragraphs called mishnayyot. The penultimate tractate of the fourth Order is called Avot or Pirke Avot [chapters of the fathers], and unlike much of the rest of the Mishna consists of general moral and religious sayings. In addition to those rulings accepted as law, the Mishna records contrary opinions and discussions among the rabbis.

Bibliography

See translation by H. Danby (1958); L. Ginzberg, Studies in the Origin of the Mishnah (1920); J. Neusner, A History of Mishnaic Law (1974) and Judaism: The Evidence of the Mishnah (1981).

References in periodicals archive ?
Before examining the significance of the three juxtaposed relationships, we can observe that Abba Shaul's statement in Mishna Makkot 2:2 implies that these three figures are obligated to engage in such corrective activity, in contrast to the case of chopping wood.
Mishna F (2014) Self psychology and male child sexual abuse: Healing relational betrayal.
However, research has shown that adolescents may be reluctant to discuss cyberbullying with adults, including with their parents (Juvonen & Gross, 2008; Mishna et al.
See also Mishna evidence, supra note 90; Danielle Keats Citron, "Law's Expressive Value in Combating Cyber Gender Harassment" (2009) 108:3 Mich L Rev 373.
3) Mishna, Faye, "Cyber Bullying," written submission to the Standing Senate Committee on Human Rights, April 30, 2012, p.
3) Mishna, Faye, La cyberintimidation, document presente au Comite senatorial permanent des droits de la personne, 30 avril 2012, p.
Y asi se fue avanzando hacia los sabios de la Mishna, los tannaim, que pasaron la antorcha a los amoraim del Talmud, a los savoraira postalmudicos, a los gueonim que florecieron alrededor del ano 700, a los risbonim del medioevo tardio y a los ajaronim de comienzos de la era moderna.
The Mishna, a redaction of nearly all the main areas of Jewish law then extant, became the basis of subsequent Jewish legal development and literature.
En algunos estudios los varones son mas proclives a ser victimas que las mujeres (Akbulut, Sahin y Eristi, 2010; Gofin y Avitzour, 2012; Pelfrey y Weber, 2013; Popovic-Citic, Djuric y Cvetkovic, 2011; Yilmaz, 2011), en otros estudios las mujeres son mas victimas (Brighi, Guarini, Melotti, Galli y Genta, 2012; Fenaughty y Harre, 2013; Huang y Chou, 2010; Olenik-Shemesh, Heiman y Eden, 2012; Vieno, Gini y Santinello, 2011; Wade y Beran, 2011; Walrave y Heirman, 2011) y un tercer grupo de investigaciones no encuentra diferencias de sexo en victimizacion (Allen, 2012; Bauman, 2010; Caballo, Calderero, Arias, Salazar e Irurtia, 2012; Lauren y Ratliffe, 2011; Mishna, Khoury-Kassabri, Gadalla y Daciuk, 2012; Monks, Robinson y Worlidge, 2012).
The need for quality after school programs in Canada is growing, says Faye Mishna, dean and professor, Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto.
Finally, Mishna and Muskat (2004) investigated the efficacy of an interpersonal group treatment and mutual aid group intervention with 21 fifth- through 11th-grade students who had been referred for learning or psychosocial problems in Canada.
A key observation of Bousquet-Melou and Mishna was that lattice path models with small steps restricted to the quarter plane appeared to be naturally partitioned according to the nature of their generating functions: specifically, they conjectured a test for whether or not the generating function of a given model would satisfy algebraic or linear differential equations.