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(mĭsh`nə), in Judaism, codified collection of Oral Law—legal interpretations of portions of the biblical books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy and other legal material. Together with the Gemara, or Amoraic commentary on the Mishna, it comprises the TalmudTalmud
[Aramaic from Heb.,=learning], in Judaism, vast compilation of the Oral Law with rabbinical elucidations, elaborations, and commentaries, in contradistinction to the Scriptures or Written Laws. The Talmud is the accepted authority for Orthodox Jews everywhere.
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. Next to the Scriptures the Mishna is the basic textbook of Jewish life and thought, and is traditionally considered to be an integral part of the Torah revealed to Moses on Mount Sinai. The sifting and recording of the body of oral interpretations of biblical law was the work of the TannaimTannaim
[plural of Aramaic tanna,=one who studies or teaches], Jewish sages of the period from Hillel to the compilation of the Mishna. They functioned as both scholars and teachers, educating those in the synagogues as well as in the academies.
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, the final compilation being made during the rule of Judah ha-NasiJudah ha-Nasi
, c.135–c.220, Palestinian Jewish communal leader (tanna). He occupied the office of patriarch (nasi) which was reestablished by the Romans after 135.
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. The Mishna is divided into six Orders (Sedarim): Zeraim [seeds], laws pertaining to agriculture; Moed [seasons], laws concerning observation of the Sabbath and festivals; Nashim [women], laws regarding vows, marriage, and divorce; Nezikim [damages], laws concerning civil and criminal matters; Kodashim [holy things], laws regulating ritual slaughter, sacrifice, and holy objects; and Tohorot [purities], laws regarding ceremonial purity. Each Order is divided into tractates, which in turn are divided into chapters. These contain paragraphs called mishnayyot. The penultimate tractate of the fourth Order is called Avot or Pirke Avot [chapters of the fathers], and unlike much of the rest of the Mishna consists of general moral and religious sayings. In addition to those rulings accepted as law, the Mishna records contrary opinions and discussions among the rabbis.


See translation by H. Danby (1958); L. Ginzberg, Studies in the Origin of the Mishnah (1920); J. Neusner, A History of Mishnaic Law (1974) and Judaism: The Evidence of the Mishnah (1981).

References in periodicals archive ?
In chapter 3, Simon-Shoshan presents a nonexhaustive typology of the numerous forms of narrativity in the Mishnah. From low-level narrative literary forms such as apodictic statements and speech acts to full-fledged stories, such as case stories and exempla, Simon-Shoshan surveys a wide range of literary forms on the narrativity continuum.
The discussion on this mishnah in Talmud Brakhot 32b states that shohin both preceded and followed prayer itself.
Israel Lipshutz who included it in his commentary on the Mishnah, Tiferet Yisrael, was not a chassid).
The Talmud has two components, namely the Mishnah (the main text) and the Gemara (an elucidation of the Mishnah).
What, then, is the rationale behind the ruling of the Mishnah? A clue may be found in the following Tosefta, and the ensuing talmudic discussion.
Consequently, it was improper to overcharge and profit for more than one sixth (Mishnah Baba Metzia 4:1-4).
By the time of the Mishnah at the end of the 2nd century, Jewish law had already codified the need for a quorum of ten adult males for the performance of acts of special holiness including public as opposed to private worship.
Torah And Company: The Weekly Portion Of Torah, Accompanies By Generous Helpings Of Mishnah And Germara, Served Up With Discussion Questions To Spice Up Your Sabbath Table by Judith Z.
In the ethical tractate of the Mishnah, Ethics of the Fathers, Judah ben Tabbai warns against acting like an advocate.
As Seder M'Kablie HaTorah (a work dating from the Geonic period; roughly 700-1000 CE) recounts: "From the days of Moses until Hillel, there were six hundred orders of Mishnah just as they were given unto Moses at Sinai.
In the 3rd century C.E., Rabbi Yehudah haNassi classified these teachings into the Mishnah, which consists of 63 tractates ("masechtos") that were organized into six orders ("sedarim").
(16) Levine critiques the tendency of interpreters to use the Mishnah as an indicator of Jewish restrictions on women's behavior in Jesus' day.