The mitogen-activated protein kinases
(MAPKs) are a group of serine-threonine protein kinases that can be activated by different extracellular stimuli including cytokines, neurotransmitters, hormones, and cell stress.
PKR was involved in inflammation and immune dysfunction through regulating mitogen-activated protein kinases
(MAPKs), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), NF-[kappa]B, apoptosis, and autophagy pathways (26).
After an autobiographical article by Mary-Dell Chilton on her career in science, essays address chlorophototrophic bacteria; endosymbiotic organelle evolution in photosynthetic eukaryotes; nitrate transport, signaling, and use efficiency; plant vacuoles; protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum of plants; autophagy; reactive oxygen species in plant signaling; the cell and developmental biology of plant mitogen-activated protein kinases
; the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases; plant malectin-like receptor kinases; and kinesins and myosins.
In this pathway, there is an extracellular signalling that activates a conformational change of GRB-2 mitogen-activated protein kinases
Karin, "The regulation of AP-1 activity by mitogen-activated protein kinases
," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
However, accumulating evidence indicates that protein kinase B (AKT)/glycogen synthase kinase-3[beta] (GSK3[beta]) and mitogen-activated protein kinases
(MAPKs) play key roles in the development of cardiac hypertrophy .
Zaugg, "Differential activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases
in ischemic and anesthetic preconditioning," Anesthesiology, vol.
Samaj, "Emerging topics in the cell biology of mitogen-activated protein kinases
," Trends in Plant Science, vol.
Pae, "Mitogen-activated protein kinases
and reactive oxygen species: how can ROS activate MAPK pathways?" Journal of Signal Transduction, vol.
Ligation of RANKL to the receptor activator of NF-[kappa]B (RANK) activates mitogen-activated protein kinases
(MAPKs) pathway, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun- N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38.
Katagiri et al., "Three mitogen-activated protein kinases
inhibit insulin signaling by different mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes," Molecular Endocrinology, vol.
Du, "Two distinct roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases
in platelets and a novel Rac1-MAPK-dependent integrin outsidein retractile signaling pathway," Blood, vol.