(4,5) Aripiprazole is increasingly used for controlling acute manic and mixed episodes
of bipolar I disorder (6,7) and for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder.
Therefore, we included manic, depressive, and mixed episode
as a one bipolar group and a paranoid and undifferentiated schizophrenia as a one schizophrenia group to the main statistical analyses.
It has been recognized that the DSM-IV-TR criteria for mixed episode
did not reflect the most common phenomenology of patients with bipolar depression and admixture of hypomania.
Among the individuals who suffered sexual violence, the prevalence of depressive episode was 24.4%, (hypo)manic episode was 3.1%, while mixed episode
was 13.9%, and the lifetime suicide risk was present in 29.2% (Figure 1).
However, differential diagnosis becomes much more challenging when evaluating the possibility of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder or a mixed episode
. The rapid-cycling specifier in the DSM-IV-TR has a very specific meaning that is often misunderstood.
Effects of asenapine on depressive symptoms in patients with bipolar I disorder experiencing acute manic or mixed episodes
: a post hoc analysis of two 3-week clinical trials.
In 2004, an extended release formulation of carbamazepine was approved by the United States FDA for the acute treatment of manic and mixed episodes
associated with BD type I.
A mixed episode
lasts for at least one week, and the criteria for both mania and depression are met nearly every day during that time period (APA).
None of the study participants with bipolar disorder reported ever experiencing a manic or mixed episode
, or catatonic symptoms.
In a study of 71 adolescents with BD followed for 1 year after their first hospitalization for a manic or mixed episode
, DelBello et al11 defined nonadherence as taking medication < 25% of the time and partial adherence as taking medication 25% to 75% of the time.
A manic episode was observed in 23% of patients, and a mixed episode
was observed in 22%.
The efficacy of risperidone in the treatment of manic or mixed episodes
in children or adolescents with bipolar I disorder was demonstrated in a three-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, trial involving 160 patients who were experiencing a manic or mixed episode