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mobile(mō`bēl), a type of moving sculptural artwork developed by Alexander CalderCalder, Alexander
, 1898–1976, American sculptor, b. Philadelphia; son of Alexander Stirling Calder and grandson of Alexander Mine Calder, prominent sculptors. Among the most innovative of modern sculptors, he trained as a mechanical engineer and studied at New York's Art
..... Click the link for more information. in 1932 and named by Marcel DuchampDuchamp, Marcel
, 1887–1968, French painter, brother of Raymond Duchamp-Villon and half-brother of Jacques Villon. Duchamp is noted for his cubist-futurist painting Nude Descending a Staircase,
..... Click the link for more information. . Often constructed of colored metal pieces connected by wires or rods, the mobile has moving parts that are sensitive to a breeze or light touch; it can be designed to hang from the ceiling or stand free on the floor. Mobiles became popular in the 1950s for interior decoration.
Mobile(mōbēl`, mō`bēl'), city (1990 pop. 196,278), seat of Mobile co., SW Ala., at the head of Mobile Bay and at the mouth of the Mobile River; inc. 1814. Lying on one of the continent's greatest natural harbors, Mobile is one of the country's major ports, the only seaport in Alabama, and the second largest city in the state. It has an important history as a shipping and shipbuilding center. The city's economy is primarily based on its oil refineries and industries that produce paper, textiles, aluminum, and chemicals. There is also steel processing and aircraft assembly. Commerce through the port of Mobile increased greatly following the completion of the Tennessee-Tombigbee WaterwayTennessee-Tombigbee Waterway,
system of navigation channels, 234 mi (377 km) long, Ala. and Miss., connecting the Tennessee River with the Tombigbee River and, via the Mobile River, with the Gulf of Mexico.
..... Click the link for more information. in 1984.
A settlement was founded on the site of Mobile in 1710 by the sieur de Bienville, and it was the capital of French Louisiana from 1710 to 1719. The British held it from 1763 to 1780, when Bernardo de Gálvez took it for Spain. Mobile was seized for the Americans by Gen. James Wilkinson in 1813. During the Civil War, ships from Mobile evaded the Union blockade until Admiral Farragut's victory at Mobile Bay (1864); Gen. E. R. S. Canby captured the city in Apr., 1865.
Mobile has many beautiful antebellum homes and magnificent gardens. Also noteworthy are a Roman Catholic cathedral, the city hall (1858), and Marine Hospital (1842). Of historical interest are the homes of Admiral Raphael Semmes and Gen. Braxton Bragg, the headquarters of Gen. Canby, and forts Morgan and Gaines at the entrance to Mobile Bay. Mobile is the seat of Spring Hill College (the oldest in the state), the Univ. of Mobile, and the Univ. of South Alabama. A Coast Guard aviation training center and Battleship Memorial Park, with the USS Alabama and the USS Drum submarine, are there. The colorful annual Mardi Gras was begun in the early 1700s; the Azalea Trail Festival dates from 1929. The Bankhead Tunnel lies under the Mobile River.
See C. Donelson, Mobile: Sunbelt Center of Opportunity (1986); E. O. Wilson and A. Harris, Why We Are Here: Mobile and the Spirit of a Southern City (2012).
a city and port in the southern USA, in the state of Alabama. Located on Mobile Bay at the mouth of the Mobile River, on the Gulf of Mexico. Population, 190,000 (377,000 including suburbs, 1970), over a third of whom are Negroes. Mobile is the starting point of an inland waterway to the city of Birmingham. Volume of freight handling in the port was 23.7 million tons in 1972, and included major bauxite imports. Mobile’s industries include woodworking, cellulose and paper, chemicals, alumina and cement production, and shipbuilding. The city was founded in 1711.
the western, that is, main arm of the river formed by the confluence of the Alabama and Tombigbee rivers in the state of Alabama in the southern USA. The eastern arm of the river is known as the Tensaw. The Mobile River falls into Mobile Bay in the Gulf of Mexico, forming a marshy delta. Length, approximately 80 km; basin area, 109,000 sq km. The Mobile is fed by rain; high water occurs in the spring and low water in the autumn. The river is navigable for its entire length. The seaport of Mobile is located at its mouth.
a work of art consisting of a movable structure, usually made of light metal and plastics, that changes its form because of air currents or a mechanical apparatus, creating various color, light, and sound effects. The term “mobile” was first used in 1932 in reference to abstract works by the American sculptor A. Calder. The term is broadly applied to works of kinetic art, a school that developed in the 1960’s and aims at activating the viewer’s perception. The principles of kinetic art, including multiform variations of structure permitted by engineering techniques and electronics and the creation of optical and acoustical effects through photographic, cinematic, and stereophonic techniques, are sometimes applied in the designs of decorations for festivals and for exhibition interiors. However, as a work of studio art, the mobile has not yet transcended the stage of abstract formal experimentation.
REFERENCESStoikov, A. “O kineticheskom iskusstve.” Ikusstvo, 1969, no. 3.
Popper, F. Naissance de l’an cinétique. [Paris, 1967.]