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in linguistics, a conceptual category expressing the purposefulness of speech, the relationship of a speaker to the content of his utterance, and the relationship of the content of the utterance to reality.

Modality may signify affirmation, command, desire, permission, truth, and unreality. It is expressed by various grammatical and lexical means: modal verbs (“may,” “should”; German sollen, konnen, wollen), other modal words (“perhaps,” “likely”), and intonational means. Different languages express the various meanings of modality in different ways. For example, English expresses the modality of unreality by means of a special conjugation, the subjunctive II (“If you had come in time, we would have been able to catch the train”). In Yagnobi, the forms of the present-future tense can have the modal nuances of indirect command, permission, invitation to action, and intention of doing something.



the mode of existence of some object or the mode of duration of some phenomenon (ontological modality) or the way of understanding or drawing conclusions about an object, phenomenon, or event (epistemological or logical modality).

The concept of modality, which goes back to Aristotle, was later used in classical philosophical systems. The words (terms) expressing different modal concepts are the object of linguistic study. The distinction between propositions according to modality, elaborated in classical logic by the students and commentators of Aristotle (such as Theophrastus and Eudemus of Rhodes), was further defined by the medieval Scholastics.

In modern logic and philosophy, I. Kant’s division of propositions into assertoric (judgments about reality), apodictic (judgments of necessity), and problematic (judgments of possibility) has become traditional. The generally accepted derivation of the proposition “A occurs” from “A is necessary” and the proposition “A is possible” from “A occurs” has become the foundation of work on modality in contemporary formal (mathematical) logic. Modalities pertaining to propositions or predicates are known as alethic, while modalities pertaining to words expressing actions and acts are called deontic.

Modalities are further divided into “absolute” and “relative,” according to the usual meaning of these terms. In contemporary modal logic and logical semantics, modality is also sometimes understood to include the concepts “true” and “false,” as well as “provable,” “unprovable,” and “refutable.”


References in periodicals archive ?
To work out modalities for the opening of Kartarpur opening, a Pakistani delegation visited Attari where a meeting was held with Indian officials on March 14.
([LAMBDA]) For the additional modalities that CUA Health covers that are not listed above including Bowen Therapy, Kinesiology and Reflexology, eligible providers will need to use the following to work out your provider number:
A bench of justices Ranjan Gogoi and R F Nariman asked the government to submit the modalities and SOPs before it for approval within August 16.
Because reliable and validated data in the management of these conditions are lacking, he and his associates performed a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of reported treatment modalities using specific outcome measures.
Chi-square analyses revealed no significant associations between the four intervention modalities in terms of previous severity of the addiction ([chi square] = 7.94, p = 0.242).
Recognizing that hybrid warfare is far more than a subset of irregular warfare, analyst Nathan Freier developed a comprehensive description of hybrid warfare and defines it as an adversary's integration and use of at least two of the following modalities: traditional warfare, catastrophic terrorism, irregular warfare, and disruptive use of technology.
Our motivation here is to suggest a simple method based on a well-investigated framework, which takes into account the data modalities while integrating them into a sparse prediction model.
The global oncology drugs market is experiencing a shift in therapeutic modalities i.e.
Shortly after the introduction of chronic HD therapy in the early 1960s, home dialysis modalities became available.
Hence this study was carried out to assess the learning modalities adopted by the medical students of third year in Kannur Medical College.
As workflow is faster across the combined imaging modalities radiation is significantly reduced.
Patients were registered into seven different groups and allocated to seven different modalities: