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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in linguistics, a conceptual category expressing the purposefulness of speech, the relationship of a speaker to the content of his utterance, and the relationship of the content of the utterance to reality.

Modality may signify affirmation, command, desire, permission, truth, and unreality. It is expressed by various grammatical and lexical means: modal verbs (“may,” “should”; German sollen, konnen, wollen), other modal words (“perhaps,” “likely”), and intonational means. Different languages express the various meanings of modality in different ways. For example, English expresses the modality of unreality by means of a special conjugation, the subjunctive II (“If you had come in time, we would have been able to catch the train”). In Yagnobi, the forms of the present-future tense can have the modal nuances of indirect command, permission, invitation to action, and intention of doing something.



the mode of existence of some object or the mode of duration of some phenomenon (ontological modality) or the way of understanding or drawing conclusions about an object, phenomenon, or event (epistemological or logical modality).

The concept of modality, which goes back to Aristotle, was later used in classical philosophical systems. The words (terms) expressing different modal concepts are the object of linguistic study. The distinction between propositions according to modality, elaborated in classical logic by the students and commentators of Aristotle (such as Theophrastus and Eudemus of Rhodes), was further defined by the medieval Scholastics.

In modern logic and philosophy, I. Kant’s division of propositions into assertoric (judgments about reality), apodictic (judgments of necessity), and problematic (judgments of possibility) has become traditional. The generally accepted derivation of the proposition “A occurs” from “A is necessary” and the proposition “A is possible” from “A occurs” has become the foundation of work on modality in contemporary formal (mathematical) logic. Modalities pertaining to propositions or predicates are known as alethic, while modalities pertaining to words expressing actions and acts are called deontic.

Modalities are further divided into “absolute” and “relative,” according to the usual meaning of these terms. In contemporary modal logic and logical semantics, modality is also sometimes understood to include the concepts “true” and “false,” as well as “provable,” “unprovable,” and “refutable.”


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Our multivariate analysis identified some potentially important drivers of treatment modality. Those at academic centres were less likely to do ureteroscopy for 8- to 14-mm upper calyceal stones or for a lower calyceal stone.
The organisation of this paper is as follows: we shall first examine modality. It is a semantic category typically signified by modals, and reflects the speaker's attitude to the proposition.
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Considering the previous discussion, this study aimed to examine, in a sample of Portuguese patients in outpatient treatment for drug and alcohol abuse, if a combined treatment modality (group therapy with individual intervention) had better outcomes, when compared to other three types of treatment without group therapy: group receiving intervention based on individual psychological counseling; group receiving intervention based on individual psychiatric counseling; and group receiving intervention based on individual psychological and psychiatric counseling.
Joyful Machines introduced Modality to iPhone, iPad and Android Phone June 2016, and it became available to both Samsung Gear S3 in November 2016 and S2 January 2017.
First, ISIL displays the traditional modality through its fielded military and militia forces.
In contrast, other authors suggest analyzing each modality on its own and then merging the results [6], whereby merging can be performed at different stages of the analysis [7].
In 1972, prior to enactment of the Medicare ESRD program, 40% of the 4,953 persons receiving dialysis in the United States were utilizing a home modality (Qamar et al., 2009).
Kinaes thetic (K) modality refers to the "perceptual preference related to the use of experience and practice." Although such an experience may invoke other modalities, the key is that people who prefer this mode are linked to reality, "either through solid individual experiences, examples, rehearsal or imitation." People with this as a strong preference learn from the experience of doing something and they value their own background of experiences and less so, the experiences of others.