Two endoscopy units performed their cases only with moderate sedation
and did not use an anesthesia specialist.
A second patient expressed some discomfort while removing the existing tube while undergoing moderate sedation
and thus deeper sedation was provided by an anesthesiologist.
Sedation was calculated using a visual analog scale (VAS) (score 0-10) on day 0 and 7 where 0 = No sedation, 1-3 = Mild sedation, 4-7 = Moderate sedation
, and 8-10 = High sedation.
Under moderate sedation
, an initial attempt was made using grasping forceps (FG-45U-1, Olympus, Japan); however, it was unsuccessful (Figure 1 a-c).
Moreover, multiple studies suggested that the outpatient hysteroscopy is safer and more satisfactory when performing under moderate sedation
This study is a secondary analysis of data obtained from a randomized clinical trial in which 27 children aged 4-6 years (18 boys) with early childhood caries were rendered dental treatment under moderate sedation
with oral midazolam and ketamine accompanied with a dose of either sevoflurane or oxygen (approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Universidade Federal de Goias, protocol 307/2011; NCT02284204).
Feldman says that cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography are minimally invasive and are typically performed under local anesthesia or with moderate sedation
. In some cases, the patient can watch the procedure on a video screen while it is being performed.
Published guidelines provide an excellent framework for providing safe and effective minimal to moderate sedation
. When the PED physician is planning for sedation, patient safety is a top priority to avoid undesirable complications.
Invasiveness of surgery and anaesthesia Superficial surgery under local or Peripheral nerve block 0 without sedation Superficial surgery with moderate sedation
or GA 1 Peripheral surgery with Spinal or Epidural with less than 1 moderate sedation
Peripheral surgery with GA 2 Airway surgery with moderate sedation
2 Major surgery with GA 3 Airway surgery with GA 3 C.
Patients were observed after undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with moderate sedation
without fasting prior to the procedure.
* For patients being treated under minimal sedation, a dental assistant may, after training and when directed by a dentist, administer oral sedative agents or anxiolysis agents calculated and dispensed by a dentist under the direct supervision of a dentist; the rule also allows dental assistants to administer oral medications subject to specific conditions under the direct supervision of a dentist for patients being treated under moderate sedation
and deep sedation.
The deep and prolonged sedation has been demonstrated at 8 and 10mg/kgwhereas moderate sedation
was observed at 6 mg/kg body weight.