The scholarly debate over Ijtihad has been going on for well over 200 years and has produced some prominent revivalist thinkers such as Jamaluddin Afghani, a 19th Century Iranian scholar, Mohammed Abduh
, his Egyptian friend and reformer, and Mohammed Iqbal, a poet philosopher from the Indian subcontinent.
In addition the directors appointed by the public shareholders are Mohammed Abduh
Sattar, Ibrahim Mohammed and Ahmed Mohammed.
For instance, an online campaign demanding popular Saudi singer Mohammed Abduh
cancel his performance in Jeddah was launched in December.
One of the critics of the West portrayed by Mishra, Al-Afghani's Egyptian disciple Mohammed Abduh
(1849-1905), noted the disconnect between British words and deeds with respect to his country.
Likewise, Amin's contemporary, Sheikh Mohammed Abduh
(1849-1905), an Al Azhar cleric, felt that Egypt's development would falter because "Muslims ...
Afghani's most important disciple was an Egyptian Sufist (or Islamic mystic) named Mohammed Abduh
. According to scholar Elie Kedourie, the link between Afghani and Abduh was "very much that of the master and disciple in some secret, esoteric cult." Although raised as a Muslim believer, at some point Adbuh discarded his ancestral faith in favor of Afghani's religion of revolution.
It begins with Mohammed Abduh
and ends with Zoroaster.
These movements, the usulis amongst the Shi'ites(46) (which became dominant at the end of the Eighteenth Century), and those movements associated with Sayyid Ahmad Khan,(47) al-Afgani,(48) Mohammed Abduh
,(49) Qasim Amin,(50) Mohammed Iqbal(51) and Taha Husayn,(52) are thus seen as evidence of resistance to pressure of European thought on backward Seventh Century Islamic theory.(53)