(ca. 780 - ca. 850 CE) An astronomer, geographer and mathematician, born in Khwarizm (modern Khiva), south of the Aral Sea. Khawarizmi founded algebra and algorithms (named after him), synthesised Greek and Hindu knowledge, introducing the Indian system of numerals (now known as Arabic numerals), developed operations on fractions, trigonometric tables containing the sine functions, the calculus of two errors and the decimal system, explained the use of zero, perfected the geometric representation of conic sections, collaborated in the degree measurements aimed at measuring of volume and circumference of the Earth and produced the first map of the known world in 830 CE.
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