Moldavians


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Moldavians

 

a nation and the basic population of the Moldavian SSR. Of the 2,698,000 Moldavians in the USSR (1970 census), 2,304,000 live in the Moldavian SSR, 266,000 in the Ukrainian SSR, 88,000 in the RSFSR, and 40,000 in other republics. They speak Moldavian, and believers among them are members of the Orthodox Church.

There were two stages in the ethnogenesis of the Moldavians: the formation of the Eastern Romanic ethnic community, the Vlachs, and the evolution of the Moldavian nationality. The Vlachs developed out of Thracian tribes inhabiting the northern Balkan Peninsula and the foothills of the Carpathians. These Thracian tribes were romanized in the first centuries A.D., and from the sixth century they came under the influence of the Slavs and other ethnic groups. In the course of ethnic development the Moldavian nationality emerged as a distinct group out of the Vlach population in the Eastern Carpathians; Slavic tribes, mainly South and East Slavs, were partly assimilated by the Moldavians.

In the first half of the 14th century a Moldavian feudal state emerged, later encompassing territory east of the Prut, and the formation of the Moldavian nationality was completed within the state. From the 16th through the 19th century Moldavia was ruled by the Turks. In their struggle for national independence the Moldavian people frequently turned to Russia for aid. In the early 19th century the part of Moldavia that lay between the Prut and Dnestr rivers (Bessarabia) was liberated from Turkish rule and incorporated into Russia. Capitalist relations developed in Bessarabia, and a national intelligentsia appeared. In the early 20th century an independent Moldavian nation arose. Bessarabia was forcibly taken from Soviet Russia by bourgeois-landlord Rumania in 1918. The Moldavian ASSR was created in 1924 within the Ukrainian SSR out of the left-bank regions of the Dnestr populated by Moldavians. In 1940, Bessarabia was returned to the USSR. The Moldavian SSR was created out of the Moldavian ASSR and the greater part of Bessarabia.

During the Soviet period the Moldavian people have achieved great successes in their political, economic, and cultural development. In the course of socialist construction the Moldavians developed into a socialist nation. Significant changes in the social structure of the population occurred; as a result of industrial development the number of industrial and office workers in-creased. New rural homes, while preserving their distinctive national appearance, have more amenities. A characteristic feature is the decoration of rooms with rugs and ornamental cloths.

Although national costumes are still worn during holidays in some areas, the traditional dress has everywhere been replaced by modern urban clothing. New holidays and customs have appeared, and the old ones have changed. Popular artistic crafts include carpet-making, embroidery, pottery, and woodworking. Amateur folk art is flourishing. Folk dance groups and folk music orchestras have arisen on the basis of ancient dances. Alongside folk art, professional art, including the theater, films, music, painting, and literature, is also developing.

REFERENCES

Narody Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR, vol. 2. Moscow, 1964. (Bibliography.)
Zelenchuk, V. S. Ocherki moldavskoi narodnoi obriadnosti (XlX-nachala XX vv.) Kishinev, 1959.
Materialy i issledovaniia po arkheologii i etnografii Moldavskoi SSR. Kishinev, 1964.
Demchenko, N. A. Zemledel’cheskie orudiia moldavan XVIII-nach. XX vv. Kishinev, 1967.
Khynku, I. G. Moldavskaia narodnaia keramika. Kishinev, 1969.
Kantemir, D. Deskrieria Moldovei. Kishinev, 1957.

V. S. ZELENCHUK

References in periodicals archive ?
Amid the revolutionary crisis of 1905 and due to the new avenues opened for public activity, a group of conservative Romanian-speaking landowners and officials founded the Moldavian Society for the Spread of National Culture in September 1905Under the leadership of Pavel Dicescul, a prominent local activist and a marshal of nobility for Kishinev District, this organization championed the rather moderate agenda of cultural enlightenment aimed at the Romanian-speaking peasantry, while emphasizing its loyalty to the dynasty and the imperial order.
On the other hand, in Discover the Routes of Life campaign, national identity discourses are constructed by appealing to nature (a tourist walking on pristine landscapes, Moldovan grapes as a symbol of wine-making traditions); history (Orheiul Vechi citadel), traditions (Moldavian songs and dance, traditional food), religion (an Orthodox church in a frame), hospitality (Moldavians are presented as being friendly with foreigners), and architecture (the Moldavian rural houses).
The changes make it possible for Moldavians workers to be hired in Bulgaria without special permission for 1 year with a possibility to extend that period to 3 years.
The Moldavians are managed by former international Ion Caras and the ex-FC Zimbru ChiAinAu (top division Moldavian club with eight league titles and five domestic cups) and will look to Dynamo Moscow centre back and national team captain Alexandru Epureanu to lead the home charge.
Magical and mystical as I find the wailing, those flashing lights encourage in me 'bad thoughts'; Moldavian girls being trafficked, hashish smoked, cocaine snorted as chips slide back and forth across green baize and roulette wheels spin, die are thrown and cards dealt to the phrase, 'rien ne va plus' spoken with a Turkish accent.
Did the logic of that alliance drive him to the confrontation in the Baltics, or did he himself assume that he could teach a cheap lesson in the Baltics, warning the Georgians, the Moldavians and, above all, the Ukrainians that he must now be taken in earnest?
Moldova has a population of about 3.5 million, of those some 2.6 millions are ethnic Moldavians.
TWO MOLDAVIANS and an Indian man were remanded in custody for four days after they had been arrested at the airport with fake documents.
The Moldavians will now be able to submit their applications for visas to the participating countries and undergo the necessary interviews in Chisinau, instead of being obliged to go and submit visa applications abroad (generally in Romania or Ukraine), where the relevant embassies are located.
A total of 44 211 Macedonians have received Bulgarian citizenship in the period, followed by Moldavians (20 668), Serbians (4009), Russians (3161), Ukrainians (3079), Israelis (2638) and Albanians (1399).
"Due to the buffer zone, many immigrants -- mainly Turks, Sri Lankans, Syrians or Moldavians -- arrive at the illegal airport of Tympou in the occupied areas through Turkey, with the aim of crossing over to the free areas and travelling to the EU through Larnaca Airport," Andreou explained.
They include applications of 331 Macedonians, 189 Moldavians, 36 Albanians, and the rest are from the Ukraine, Russia, Israel and others.