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economic theory that monetary policy, or control of the money supply, is the primary if not sole determinant of a nation's economy. Monetarists believe that management of the money supply to produce credit ease or restraint is the chief factor influencing inflationinflation,
in economics, persistent and relatively large increase in the general price level of goods and services. Its opposite is deflation, a process of generally declining prices. The U.S.
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 or deflation, recession (see depressiondepression,
in economics, period of economic crisis in commerce, finance, and industry, characterized by falling prices, restriction of credit, low output and investment, numerous bankruptcies, and a high level of unemployment.
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) or growth; they dismiss fiscal policy (government spending and taxation) as ineffective in regulating economic performance. Milton FriedmanFriedman, Milton
, 1912–2006, American economist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Columbia, 1946. Friedman was influential in helping to revive the monetarist school of economic thought (see monetarism).
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 was the leading modern proponent for monetarism.
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a school of thought in economics and in politics that sees control of the money supply as the key to the management of the economy Monetarists emphasize the need to match the supply of money (including credit) to the capacity of the economy to produce goods and services, if INFLATION is to be controlled and stop-go economic growth avoided. As well as having been a fashionable but controversial theory in academic ECONOMICS (compare KEYNESIAN ECONOMICS), monetarism has also been widely employed in the 1980s by Western governments. It provides a rationale for control of the economy through control of the money supply, including the control of rates of interest, and has also been used as justification for control of state expenditures, and thus the state borrowing which creates credit. The adoption of monetarism was an outcome of the seeming failure of Keynesian economics to prevent high inflation and high unemployment, a loss of international competitiveness and a squeeze on profits. All of these were suggested to be the result of an OVERLOAD ON THE STATE and the escalation of state expenditures.

The issues to which monetarism relates are not only a matter of monetary relations and fiscal policy, or the interests of nation states. Rather, as suggested long ago by MARX, such issues also involve the complex competing interests of multiple groups and classes, internationally as well as within nations. See also HABERMAS, THATCHERISM.

Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000


1. the theory that inflation is caused by an excess quantity of money in an economy
2. an economic policy based on this theory and on a belief in the efficiency of free market forces, that gives priority to achieving price stability by monetary control, balanced budgets, etc., and maintains that unemployment results from excessive real wage rates and cannot be controlled by Keynesian demand management
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Likewise, an economist who has been trained in a monetarist-oriented department would tend to interpret a current economic event as per the monetarist frame of thought.
For Market Monetarists, stable NGDP promotes prosperity, ceteris paribus.
Bellante and Garrison (1988) should therefore have seen that Friedman and the monetarists were wrong about the neutrality of money, especially
The Monetarists are good inflationary period economists.
Granger causality testing can be used as an effective tool to identify causal relationships between variables which represent different instruments and objectives of the monetarist transmission.
The underlying axiom of monetarist theory (Friedman, 1986) is that every crisis is triggered by disturbances in the regularity of money supply.
To compete with the New Keynesian framework as the benchmark for policymakers, the New Monetarists must develop quantitative theoretic versions of their models that can be used to answer policy questions.
Louis' (1982) result appears to verify the contentions of frontline monetarist like Milton Friedman and Mises.
The work of those economists, who soon came to be termed "monetarists," called into question fundamental elements of both Keynesian theory and the economic policy it underpinned.
Monetarists, he says, were "too focused on aggregates like 'the' price level, which led economists to ignore the way inflation could distort individual prices at the microeconomic level, causing resource misallocation in the process." Virtually all economists now agree, for example, that the Fed's low interest rates inflated housing prices earlier in the decade.
Its adherents, the "monetarists," had faced little challenge as they de-emphasized the role of fiscal policy, defined as the control of taxes and spending to influence economic variables.