Mongol Feudal Empire

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Mongol Feudal Empire

 

an empire created in the first half of the 13th century through the wars of conquest of Genghis Khan and his successors. Under the rule of Genghis Khan’s grandson Mangu (Möngke) Khan, who ruled from 1251 to 1259, the Mongol feudal empire included Mongolia, northern China, Korea, the Tangut kingdom of Hsi Hsia, Central and Middle Asia, Transcaucasia, Iran, Afghanistan, and a large part of Russia.

However, the empire lacked internal unity. It forcibly united a large number of peoples speaking different languages who were at various levels of socioeconomic and cultural development; many had a higher level of civilization than the conquerors. The empire began to disintegrate after the death of Mangu. First to break away from the empire were the realms of Batu Khan (ruled 1236–55) and Hulagu Khan (ruled 1256–65), who created independent states under Mongol dynasties—the Golden Horde and the Hulagu Empire. These states neither interfered in the affairs of the Mongol feudal empire nor permitted interference by the latter’s rulers in their own affairs. Mangu was succeeded by his brother Kublai Khan (ruled 1260–94), under whom the Mongol feudal lords completed the conquest of China. The empire of Kublai Khan and his successors was known as Yuan. In 1368 the Mongol conquerors were driven out of China by a popular uprising. The overthrow of the Mongol yoke in Russia began with the battle of Kulikovo in 1380. In the second half of the 14th century Mongol rule declined in Iran, Transcaucasia, and Middle Asia, and in the last quarter of the 14th century the Mongol feudal empire ceased to exist.

I. IA. ZLATKIN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.