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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(self-designations, Khor, Mengule, Menguer Kun, and others), a Mongolian-speaking people living in Tsinghai and Kansu provinces in China.

The Monguor number 53,000 (1953 census). Their language, which constitutes a separate branch of the Mongolian language, has two dialects. The Huchu dialect has been appreciably influenced by Tibetan, and the Minho dialect has been influenced by Chinese. The ethnogenesis of the Monguor shows traces of western Mongolian, Turkic, Tibetan, and Chinese elements. The chief occupation of the Monguor is farming, supplemented by livestock raising, hunting, and fishing. Their beliefs are a mixture of Lamaism, shamanism, and Taoism.


Narody Vostochnoi Azii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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The subtitle described the contents: The Tibetan Loanwords of Monguor and the Development of the Archaic Dialects.
also Monguor ugu[bar.a], ugu[bar.i], Kalmuck ug[bar.a]--Poppe 1987 : 289-291).
Both are full of problems in forms and meanings further complicated by miscopying (e.g., in the 'pour' etymology, Monguor fusuru- is incorrect for fuDzuru-, and the Middle Korean cognate should be cited as pus-, not puz-).
On subjective mood and objective mood in the Monguor language.