ABX-1431 is a novel small molecule that modulates the levels of an endogenous cannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), through inhibition of monoacylglycerol
According to Morita , the occurrence of esterification reactions between acrylic acid and glycerol molecules can produce a mixture of monoacylglycerol
, diacylglycerol, and triacylglycerol, depending on the number of hydroxyl groups of glycerol involved in the reaction, as illustrated in Eq.
The pre-duodenal (lingual and gastric) lipases and duodenal (pancreatic) lipase hydrolyze the triacylglycerol to FFAs and monoacylglycerol
Lipoprotein lipase is a "gatekeeper" for fatty acid uptake (Greenwood 1985), and HSL as the rate-limiting enzyme is thought to break down TAG functionally into diacylglycerol and then into monoacylglycerol
(Holm et al.
Therapeutic potential of monoacylglycerol
Murthy Madiraju, Researcher at the CRCHUM, said when sugar is being used by the insulin secreting pancreatic beta-cell, it produces monoacylglycerol
, a fat-like signal and this is associated with insulin release into blood; they found that the production of monoacylglycerol
is essential for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by the beta-cell.
Lipolysis in adipocytes is regulated in a step-wise fashion by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and monoacylglycerol
The cannabinoid syndrome from OPs involves inhibition of monoacylglycerol
lipase and fatty acid amide hydrolase, elevated levels of the endocannabinoids (2-arachidonoyl glycerol and anandamide), and reduced amounts of arachidonic acid (Nomura and Casida 2011) (see Supplemental Material, Figure 10C), but the relevance to wildlife is unknown.
Commercially available DAG oil generally contains ~75 % diacylglycerol, 20% triacylglycerol, 5% monoacylglycerol