ethylene glycol

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Related to Monoethylene glycol: Diethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol

ethylene glycol:

see glycolglycol
, dihydric alcohol in which the two hydroxyl groups are bonded to different carbon atoms; the general formula for a glycol is (CH2)n(OH)2.
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Ethylene Glycol

 

(also 1,2-ethanediol), HOCH2CH2OH, the simplest of the glycols.

Ethylene glycol takes the form of a colorless, viscous liquid with a sweet taste. It has a melting point of – 12.3°C, a boiling point of 196°C, and a density of 1.113 g/cm3 at 20°C. Miscible in all proportions with water, alcohol, and acetone, it is poorly soluble in ether and insoluble in chloroform, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Ethylene glycol is hygroscopic.

An important property of ethylene glycol is its capacity to produce a marked lowering of the freezing point of water. A 40-percent solution of ethylene glycol in water has a freezing point of – 25°C, and a 60-percent solution has a freezing point of – 40°C. For this reason, ethylene glycol is commonly used in the manufacture of antifreezes.

Similar to other dihydric alcohols, ethylene glycol forms monoglycolates and diglycolates (such as HOCH2CH2ONa and NaOCH2CH2ONa), ethers, and esters. Among the other derivatives of ethylene glycol are cellusolves (the monoethers HOCH2CH2OR, where R is a hydrocarbon) and polyesters, including polyethylene terephthalate, that have the general formula (—OCH2CH2OCO—R—CO—)n; cellosolves are used as solvents, and ethylene glycol polyesters are used in the preparation of Dacron and similar synthetic fibers (seeLAVSAN and POLYESTER FIBER). Nitroglycol, a diester of ethylene glycol and nitric acid, is an explosive.

The principal industrial method for the production of ethylene glycol is the hydration of ethylene oxide at a pressure of 10 atmospheres and a temperature of 190°-200°C (or at 1 atmosphere and 50°-100°C) in the presence of 0.1–0.5 percent sulfuric or ortho-phosphoric acid; diethylene glycol and a small quantity of higher polymeric homologues of ethylene glycol are formed as by-products in this process. Ethylene glycol is used on a limited scale as a solvent for printer’s inks and certain other dyes, and it is used in the production of various inks, including inks for ball-point pens. It is also used in organic synthesis. Ethylene glycol is toxic.

M. K. GRACHEV

ethylene glycol

[′eth·ə·lēn ′glī‚kȯl]
(organic chemistry)

ethylene glycol

A type of alcohol, completely miscible in water, used in latex and water-based paints to provide stability when frozen; used in heating and cooling systems as a fluid for transferring heat.
References in periodicals archive ?
Monoethylene glycol is an odorless, colorless and barely viscous liquid which is miscible in alcohols, water, aldehydes and many other organic compounds.
The material is a bio-PET (polyethylene terephthalate) that uses ethanol derived from sugar cane instead of the typical monoethylene glycol derived from oil.
It is also exposed to risks related to fluctuations in molasses prices and Monoethylene Glycol (MEG) realisations.
The approval will allow SES to expand its current facilities to include production of approximately 50K tpa of monoethylene glycol and associated by-products.
International Resource News-2 November 2009-Shell starts monoethylene glycol plant in Jurong Island(C)2009 ENPublishing - http://www.enpublishing.co.uk
1 October 2009 - Norwegian oil service company Aker Solutions ASA (OSL: AKSO) said today that its contract with Chevron Australia Pty has been extended to include the delivery of a NOK300m monoethylene glycol (MEG) system.
In addition, demand and profit margins for the site's outputs, particularly monoethylene glycol (MEG), began to soften in early 2008.
The PET is made with monoethylene glycol sourced from sugar cane and sugar by-products in Brazil and India.
It will produce 1.1 million metric tons of ethylene per year, which will be processed into polyethylene (two units with a total capacity of 800,000 metric tons per year) and monoethylene glycol (550,000 metric tons per year).
It will produce around 1.1 m tonnes of ethylene pa, which will be processed into 410,000 tonnes of monoethylene glycol, 350,000 tonnes of HDPE and 450,000 tonnes of LLDPE, mainly for export.
A SANS investigation has been performed of various polyurethane samples changing in chemical composition and technology, obtained from a mixture of: MDI (4-4' methylene diphenil isocyanate), polyester resins (from adipic acid and glycols), MEG (monoethylene glycol), TEDA (triethylendiamine), and 1,4-diazabicyclooctane and TEA (Tri Ethanol Amine) as catalysts, Dabco DC-193 as surfactant, and water as blowing agent.
Mr Bisschoff says that the differentiating factor that ICC has over others in the market is that the company uses propylene glycol a "safe" substance also used in cosmetics and food whereas other pigment manufacturers are using monoethylene glycol, a substance banned in most European countries and is considered a carcinogen.