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organic compounds; one of the major groups of carbohydrates. They contain hydroxyl and aldehyde groups (aldoses) or keto groups (ketoses). Monosaccharides are divided into trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, and so on (containing three, four, five, six, or more carbon atoms in the chain). Natural monosaccharides with a carbon chain containing more than nine carbon atoms have not been found.

For monosaccharides containing n asymmetric carbon atoms, 2n stereoisomers may exist. Monosaccharides enter into chemical reactions typical of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups.

A characteristic feature of monosaccharides is their ability to exist in open (acyclic) or cyclic forms and to produce derivatives of each form. Monosaccharides containing a five-member ring are called furanoses, and those containing a six-member ring are called pyranoses.

Monosaccharides are components of complex carbohydrates (glycosides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides) and mixed carbohydrate-containing biopolymers (glycoproteins and glycolipids). In such compounds, monosaccharides are bound to one another and to the noncarbohydrate portion of the molecule by glycoside bonds. Upon acid or enzyme hydrolysis, the bonds may cleave, with the release of the monosaccharides.

Free monosaccharides, with the exception of D-glucose and D-fructose, are rarely encountered in nature. The biosynthesis of monosaccharides from carbon dioxide and water takes place in plants during photosynthesis. As a rule, biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates takes place with the participation of activated monosaccharide derivatives, nucleoside diphosphate sugars.

The decomposition of monosaccharides in the organism (for example, alcoholic fermentation; glycolysis) is accompanied by the release of energy. Some free monosaccharides and their derivatives (for example, glucose, fructose, and fructose diphosphate) are used in the food industry and in medicine.


Khimiia uglevodov. Moscow, 1967.


References in periodicals archive ?
Our results showed that, although chemical treatments are relatively more simple and economic than enzymatic treatments, in addition to monosaccharides, large amounts of salts are produced in the neutralization after chemical treatments, which might inhibit bacterial growth (Table 2 and 3).
An unprotected monosaccharide was condensed with an alcohol in the presence of HCl catalyst usually at elevated temperatures, resulting in the net loss of water and substitution at the anomeric position by the alcohol.
Tierney, The Use of Boric and Benzeneboronic Acids in the Partial Acetonation of Monosaccharides, Carbohydr.
Monosaccharide composition of both CPS and RPS consist the same monosaccharides moiety including galactose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, rhamnose and three unidentified monosaccharides which are difference from the other Chlamydomonas species.
The study found that female mice fed a diet with 25 percent of calories from monosaccharides from fructose and glucose, which are found in corn syrup, died at 1.
FODMAPs is an acronym for fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols, sugars that draw water into the intestinal tract.
Unlike other sugar-filled food and drinks which take much longer to be absorbed, dates are rich in monosaccharides which travel quickly to the liver and pass into the bloodstream Co great for fasters but not a good idea for diabetics.
The digesta samples from the 2 birds within a cage were pooled in sealed bags and stored at -20[degrees]C for the analyses of the monosaccharides and oligosaccharides.
The suggested limits on intake of sugars in the draft guidelines apply to all monosaccharides (such as glucose and fructose) and disaccharides (such as sucrose or table sugar) that are added to food by the manufacturer, the cook or the consumer, as well as sugars that are naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit concentrates.
From there, more and more monosaccharides jump on, forming a conga line of sugars.
Honey has high levels of monosaccharides, fructose and glucose, containing about 70 to 80% sugar, which gives it its sweet taste - minerals and water make up the rest of its composition.