One historian notes, "It is difficult to believe that the man who wrote the Apology is the same man who wrote On the Military Crown about fourteen years later, though the later document is a product of his Montanist
[and thus, extremely sectarian] point of view." (26) In the Apology, for example, Tertullian had acknowledged the necessity of war and claimed that Christians even contributed by praying for brave armies, for a faithful Senate, for the peace of the world, and for peace within the Empire, acknowledging the need to defend territorial borders against invading barbarians.
Despite its manifest nonsenses, and swift condemnation by Pope Zephyrinus, scatterings of Montanists
are attested down to the ninth century.
and Quartodecimans who came from Asia Minor and continued their customs and theology in Rome.
The added prescript describes a visit by Paul to Smyrna, where he teaches that the Pascha should be observed during Passover, to distinguish Smyrneans from the Montanists
. But, Paul refutes Quartodecimanism.
Although this was written after Tertullian had joined the "heretical" Montanists
, Roger "could sniff out nothing unorthodox in his ardent position; on the contrary, the resurrection of the flesh is the most emphatic and intrinsic of orthodox doctrines, though in our present twilight of faith the most difficult to believe." Roger marvels at the "excited eloquence" with which Tertullian argues that "flesh cannot be dispensed with by soul" (149).
, moreover, called their movement the New Prophecy, since the Holy Spirit continues to give Christians new teachings.
It was a common semantic vocabulary used and reused by Pythagoreans, Christians, Platonists, montanists
of the second century, the movement of Cola di Rienzo in fourteenth-century Rome, the Anabaptist Kingdom of Muenster in the 1530s, the apocalyptic preoccupations of the Emperor Alexander I of Russia, the millennial visions of the Metis leader Louis Riel, and the twentieth-century People's Temple of Jim Jones and the Branch Davidians of Waco, Texas, and many more are described.
My favorite example of such a difference of opinion within the Christian tradition concerns the school of devotees in the early church called Montanists
who believed that only by eating a steady diet of radishes could a person be saved.
Identifying which inscriptions actually derive from Montanists
is slippery business.
Hinson responds to the doctrinal side of Bauer's challenge with a fairly traditional treatment--although the Montanists
and Arius, for example, are given a more sympathetic reading than Marcion or the Gnostics.