Maria Montessori

(redirected from Montessori school)
Also found in: Dictionary, Medical.
Related to Montessori school: Montessori method
Maria Montessori
Birthday
BirthplaceChiaravalle (Ancona), Italy
Died
NationalityItalian
Occupation
Physician and educator
EducationUniversity of Rome La Sapienza Medical School
Known for Founder of the Montessori method of education

Montessori, Maria

(märē`ä mōntās-sô`rē), 1870–1952, Italian educator and physician. She was the originator of the Montessori method of education for young children and was the first woman to receive (1894) a medical degree in Italy.

After working with subnormal children as a psychiatrist at the Univ. of Rome, Dr. Montessori was appointed (1898) director of the Orthophrenic School. There she pioneered in the instruction of retarded children, especially through the use of an environment rich in manipulative materials. In 1901 she left the school to embark on further study and to serve (1901–7) as lecturer in pedagogical anthropology at the Univ. of Rome. The success of her program at the Orthophrenic School, however, led her to believe that similar improvements could be made in the education of normal preschool children, and in 1907 she opened the first case dei bambini [children's house] as a day-care center in the San Lorenzo district of Rome. The success of this venture led Montessori and her followers to establish similar institutions in other parts of Europe and in the United States, where the first Montessori school was established (1912) in Tarrytown, N.Y.

In 1929 the Association Montessori Internationale was established to further the Montessori method by sponsoring conventions and training courses for teachers. By this time, however, interest in Montessori education had declined in a number of countries, especially the United States, mainly because of opposition from those who felt that the method was destructive of school discipline. The Montessori method experienced a renaissance in many American schools during the late 1950s, and in 1960 the American Montessori Society was formed.

The Montessori Method

The chief components of the Montessori method are self-motivation and autoeducation. Followers of the Montessori method believe that a child will learn naturally if put in an environment containing the proper materials. These materials, consisting of "learning games" suited to a child's abilities and interests, are set up by a teacher-observer who intervenes only when individual help is needed. In this way, Montessori educators try to reverse the traditional system of an active teacher instructing a passive class. The typical classroom in a Montessori school consists of readily available games and toys, household utensils, plants and animals that are cared for by the children, and child-sized furniture—the invention of which is generally attributed to Dr. Montessori. Montessori educators also stress physical exercise, in accordance with their belief that motor abilities should be developed along with sensory and intellectual capacities. The major outlines of the Montessori system are based on Dr. Montessori's writings, which include The Montessori Method (1912), Pedagogical Anthropology (1913), The Advanced Montessori Method (2 vol., 1917), and The Secret of Childhood (1936).

Bibliography

See E. M. Standing, Maria Montessori (1958, repr. 1962) and The Montessori Revolution (1966); biography by R. Kramer (1983).

Montessori, Maria

 

Born Aug. 31, 1870, in Chiaravalle near Ancona; died May 6, 1952, in Noordwijk aan Zee, the Netherlands. Italian educator.

Montessori graduated in 1896 from the University of Rome, where she was one of the first women to receive a doctor of medicine degree. As an assistant in the university’s psychiatric clinic, she worked with mentally retarded children. She was a professor of anthropology and hygiene at the Higher Women’s School (1900–08) and a lecturer in pedagogical anthropology at the University of Rome (1904–08).

Montessori sharply criticized the traditional school of pedagogy for its drill method of teaching and for ignoring the child’s natural curiosity. Elementary school, in her opinion, should be a laboratory for the study of child psychology. She developed an original system for the sensory development of children in specialized preschool institutions (the “children’s houses “opened by her and by her disciples) and in elementary schools. In theory and in practice she adhered to the idea of freedom for the child in its upbringing.

When the fascist regime was established in Italy, Montessori left the country. She founded schools offering her method of instruction in the USA, France, Great Britain, Denmark, the Netherlands, India, and other countries. She also organized international congresses and protested against war. After World War II she returned to Italy.

WORKS

In Russian translation:
Rukovodstvo k moemu metodu. Moscow, 1961.
Metod nauchnoipedagogiki, primeniaemyi k detskomu vospitaniiu v “domakh rebenka, “4th ed. Moscow, 1920.
Samovospitanie i samoobuchenie v nachal’noi shkole. Moscow, 1922.

A. I. PISKUNOV

References in periodicals archive ?
What's keeping Golden Apple Education Group, Rainbow Bridge International School- Hong Qiao International School (RBIS-HQIS), Montessori School of Shanghai, Shanghai American School, Yew Chung International School of Shanghai, Beanstalk International Bilingual School, Canadian International School of Beijing, Crestar Education Group, Etonkids Educational Group, Little Tree Montessori International School, Noah Education Holdings Ltd., RYB Education Institution & The International Montessori School of Hong Kong Ahead in the Market?
The kindergartners were selected and packed at least nine food and drink items for each food bag, all of which were donated by Northwest Suburban Montessori School parents and families.
The Arrow Montessori School is a reputed Montessori school in San Dimas, offering a number of educational programs such as day care for infants, early education, preschool-kindergarten, middle school and elementary programs for students.
The PS4,500-a-year Cardiff Montessori School, which emphasises learning through doing, will run from new, extended premises for children aged up to nine at the recently renovated east wing of Insole Court in Llandaff.
I'd told how science teacher Claire Wilson at the Leicester Montessori School had to sue for back pay, and still didn't get it despite being awarded PS4,855 plus legal costs.
It has been an exciting week for Sinatra Drive Hoboken Apple Montessori School as the school completed the installation of an indoor playground which will be instrumental in promoting gross motor development, brain development and socialization skills.
Organizers behind the Urban Garden Montessori School said Tuesday that it will begin classes in August in temporary space on the first floor of the Kress Building at 610 Main Street in Little Rock.
Barbara was a school teacher for 26 years with the Shrewsbury Montessori School in Massachusetts.
As part of the tournament, the popular City Montessori School from Lucknow, India will play a series of matches against against two teams from Muscat - Ahli Sidab Gulf Cricket Academy Red and Ahli Sidab Gulf Cricket Academy Blue.
The five participating schools--Happy Valley Elementary School, Wade King Elementary School, Pioneer Meadows Montessori School, Cedar Tree Montessori School, and Explorations Academy--earned a combined $1,151 in store credit.

Full browser ?