Montreal Protocol


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Montreal Protocol,

officially the Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, treaty signed on Sept. 16, 1987, at Montreal by 25 nations; 197 nations are now parties to the accord. The protocol set limits on the production of chlorofluorocarbonschlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs), organic compounds that contain carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms. CFCs are highly effective refrigerants that were developed in response to the pressing need to eliminate toxic and flammable substances, such as sulfur dioxide and ammonia, in
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 (CFCs), halons, and related substances that release chlorine or bromine to the ozone layerozone layer
or ozonosphere,
region of the stratosphere containing relatively high concentrations of ozone, located at altitudes of 12–30 mi (19–48 km) above the earth's surface.
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 of the atmosphere. On the basis of increasing scientific knowledge about the effects of CFCs and halons on the ozone layer, the original protocol has been amended several times. At subsequent meetings of the signatories to the protocol amendments have been adopted that were designed to speed up the phasing out of or control ozone-depleting substances and aid developing countries in complying; not all parties to the main protocol are parties to these amendments. The production and consumption of halons was phased out by Jan. 1, 1994, and of CFCs, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and hydrobromofluorocarbons by Jan. 1, 1996, subject to an exception for agreed essential users. Methyl bromide was to be phased out by 2005 but a number of users of the chemical won temporary exceptions from the ban, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons are to be phased out by 2020. (Phaseout dates were set later for developing countries.)

Under the protocol, the ozone-depleting potential, or ODP, of any substance is measured with respect to an equal mass of CCl3F, or CFC-11, which is assigned a value of 1.0. Most other CFCs have ODPs that range from about 0.5 to about 1.3. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons, which are being used as transitional replacements (until 2020) for CFCs in refrigeration, have ODPs that are generally less than 0.5. Hydrofluorocarbons, which are also replacing CFCs as refrigerants, have ODPs of zero but are greenhouse gases. Ozone-depleting potentials are based on existing scientific knowledge and are to be reviewed and revised periodically.

Bibliography

See D. E. Newton, The Ozone Dilemma (1995).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Chamber of Deputies in plenary session approved, in great detail, the Bill that Ratifies the Amendment of the Montreal Protocol Relating to Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
Under the Montreal Protocol signed in August of 1987 by 20 countries are halon, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride (CTC), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is, meanwhile, a multilateral environmental agreement that regulates the production and consumption of nearly 100 man-made chemicals referred to as ozone depleting substances.
He analyzes the negotiation of the ozone treaties and investigates new control measures for ozone-depleting substances under the Montreal Protocol, including the 2016 Kigali Amendments.
Noting that the plan was placed before the 81st meeting of the Executive Committee of Montreal Protocol Multilateral Fund held in Montreal, Canada, from 18 to 22 June 2018 and the meeting approved it.
MANUFACTURERS of heating, cooling and refrigerant products, Daikin has disclosed plans to phase out ozone-depleting refrigerants and products, in sync with the Montreal Protocol, by 2030, as it launched the world's first R-32 Inverter Split Wall Mounted unit, in Lagos, recently.
Deputy Minister of Environment and Tourism Ts.Batbayar and head of the Ozone Authority Ts.Adiyasuren attended the 30th Meeting of the Parties to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer held on November 5-9 in Quito, Ecuador, Montsame reports.
Keeping in view Pakistan' commitments to the international community, National Ozone Unit under the foreign funded project entitled 'Institutional Strengthening for the implementation of the Montreal Protocol for the phase-out of Ozone Depleting Substances (Phase-IX)' with the financial assistance of Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol has been establishe in Ministry of Climate Change.
Cimatu said thePhilippines has always been in full compliance with the Montreal Protocol since it ratified in 1991 the global agreement to protect the ozone layer from ODS.
Cimatu reported on Tuesday that the Philippines is 'on track' in phasing out ozone depleting substances (ODS) as part of its commitment to the Montreal Protocol.
20 (Petra)- Minister of Environment, Nayef Fayez, said Jordan has already disposed 2.5 million tons of ozone-depleting substances, and announced about 700,000 tons of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are still to be disposed of over the coming decade, according to the Montreal Protocol for the Protection of the Layer Ozone.
H E Najib bin Ali al Rowas, Undersecretary in MECA, who was the chief guest, said that Oman has ratified both, the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and its amendments in London, Copenhagen, Montreal and Beijing as per Royal Decrees since 1998.

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