Montreux Convention

Montreux Convention,

1936, international agreement regarding the DardanellesDardanelles
or Çanakkale Boğazi
, strait, c.40 mi (60 km) long and from 1 to 4 mi (1.6 to 6.4 km) wide, connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara and separating the Gallipoli peninsula of European Turkey from Asian Turkey.
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. The Turkish request for permission to refortify the Straits zone was favorably received by nations anxious to return to international legality as well as to gain an ally against German and Italian expansion. The former signatories to the Treaty of Lausanne (1923; see Lausanne, Treaty ofLausanne, Treaty of,
1922–23. The peace treaty (see Sèvres, Treaty of) imposed by the Allies on the Ottoman Empire after World War I had virtually destroyed Turkey as a national state.
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) together with Yugoslavia and Australia met at Montreux, Switzerland, in 1936 and abolished the International Straits Commission, returning the Straits zone to Turkish military control. Turkey was authorized to close the Straits to warships of all countries when it was at war or threatened by aggression. Merchant ships were to be allowed free passage during peacetime and, except for countries at war with Turkey, during wartime. The Black Sea powers (principally the USSR) were authorized to send their fleets through the Straits into the Mediterranean in peacetime. The convention was ratified by Turkey, Great Britain, France, the USSR, Bulgaria, Greece, Germany, and Yugoslavia, and—with reservations—by Japan.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Montreux Convention of 1936 guarantees free passage for civilian ships sailing through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles at the other end of the Sea of Marmara, and it is not clear how Turkey will compel vessels to use the canal for a fee.
Eighty years ago, on 8 May 1937, the Montreux Convention Regarding the Abolition of the Capitulations in Egypt was concluded.
Russia has concerns regarding matters such as the flout of the 1936 Montreux Convention that will create an atmosphere of legal uncertainty and lead up to easy access for the U.
aAs you know, naval ships of non-Black Sea countries may stayA in the Black Sea up to 21 days under the Montreux Convention.
He also informed him that the Montreux Convention, which regulates passage through the Bosporus Straits, had become obsolete and had to be amended.
Zakharova responded Dec 8 by saying the Russian crew had the right to protect its vessel and insisted that the action didn't contradict the Montreux Convention, which sets international rules for using the Turkish straits.
The Montreux Convention also introduces restrictions on weapon carrying.
When Montreux Convention was signed, there were no tankers.
The Montreux Convention is critical to Russia's security.
The Montreux Convention, as it is called, sets a weight restriction of 45,000 tonnes on the number of warships that countries outside the Black Sea region can deploy in the basin.
Under the terms of the 1936 Montreux Convention, which covers shipping through straits - regarded as international waters - all are free to transit except in times of war.