Montreux Convention

Montreux Convention,

1936, international agreement regarding the DardanellesDardanelles
or Çanakkale Boğazi
, strait, c.40 mi (60 km) long and from 1 to 4 mi (1.6 to 6.4 km) wide, connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara and separating the Gallipoli peninsula of European Turkey from Asian Turkey.
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. The Turkish request for permission to refortify the Straits zone was favorably received by nations anxious to return to international legality as well as to gain an ally against German and Italian expansion. The former signatories to the Treaty of Lausanne (1923; see Lausanne, Treaty ofLausanne, Treaty of,
1922–23. The peace treaty (see Sèvres, Treaty of) imposed by the Allies on the Ottoman Empire after World War I had virtually destroyed Turkey as a national state.
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) together with Yugoslavia and Australia met at Montreux, Switzerland, in 1936 and abolished the International Straits Commission, returning the Straits zone to Turkish military control. Turkey was authorized to close the Straits to warships of all countries when it was at war or threatened by aggression. Merchant ships were to be allowed free passage during peacetime and, except for countries at war with Turkey, during wartime. The Black Sea powers (principally the USSR) were authorized to send their fleets through the Straits into the Mediterranean in peacetime. The convention was ratified by Turkey, Great Britain, France, the USSR, Bulgaria, Greece, Germany, and Yugoslavia, and—with reservations—by Japan.
References in periodicals archive ?
Navy routinely operates in the Black Sea consistent with international law, as well as with the Montreux Convention.
On June 7, 1945, then-Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov invited the Turkish ambassador in Moscow to a meeting and conveyed to him three demands of the Moscow government: The Soviet Union wanted to revise the 1921 Moscow Treaty that delineated the Turkish-Soviet border and asked for the transfer of Turkey's two easternmost provinces, Kars and Ardahan, to the Soviet Union; Soviet participation in the defense of the Turkish Straits by establishing a Soviet naval base in Istanbul; and abrogation of the Montreux Convention of 1936 on the Turkish Straits and replacing it with a bilateral treaty.
In line with provisions of the Montreux Convention, the US missile destroyer cannot stay in the Black Sea longer than 21 days.
According to the 1936 Montreux Convention, the frigate can stay in the Black Sea for 21 days.
''Warships of Non-Black Sea powers may not remain in the Black Sea longer than 21 days, the Montreux Convention reads.
The Montreux Convention of 1936 guarantees free passage for civilian ships sailing through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles at the other end of the Sea of Marmara, and it is not clear how Turkey will compel vessels to use the canal for a fee.
Eighty years ago, on 8 May 1937, the Montreux Convention Regarding the Abolition of the Capitulations in Egypt was concluded.
Russia has concerns regarding matters such as the flout of the 1936 Montreux Convention that will create an atmosphere of legal uncertainty and lead up to easy access for the U.S.-NATO warships to the Black Sea.
He also informed him that the Montreux Convention, which regulates passage through the Bosporus Straits, had become obsolete and had to be amended.
Zakharova responded Dec 8 by saying the Russian crew had the right to protect its vessel and insisted that the action didn't contradict the Montreux Convention, which sets international rules for using the Turkish straits.
"When Montreux Convention was signed, there were no tankers.
Moscow would like Ankara to continue to resist US attempts to revisit the 1936 Montreux Convention, which vests in Turkish hands control over the Bosphorus Straits and the Dardanelles.