Montrose, James Graham, 5th earl and 1st marquess of
Montrose, James Graham, 5th earl and 1st marquess of(mŏntrōz`), 1612–50, Scottish nobleman and soldier. He succeeded to the earldom in 1626 and, feeling slighted by Charles ICharles I,
1600–1649, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625–49), second son of James I and Anne of Denmark. Early Life
He became heir to the throne on the death of his older brother Henry in 1612 and was made prince of Wales in 1616.
..... Click the link for more information. , joined the CovenantersCovenanters
, in Scottish history, groups of Presbyterians bound by oath to sustain each other in the defense of their religion. The first formal Covenant was signed in 1557, signaling the beginning of the Protestant effort to seize power in Scotland.
..... Click the link for more information. in 1638. At first he was active in enforcing the Covenant and served in the Covenanters' army in the Bishops' WarsBishops' Wars,
two brief campaigns (1639 and 1640) of the Scots against Charles I of England. When Charles attempted to strengthen episcopacy in Scotland by imposing (1637) the English Book of Common Prayer, the Scots countered by pledging themselves in the National Covenant
..... Click the link for more information. . However, he came to fear a Presbyterian oligarchy controlled by Archibald Campbell, 8th earl of ArgyllArgyll, Archibald Campbell, 8th earl of and 1st marquess of,
1607–61, Scottish statesman.
..... Click the link for more information. , and was imprisoned (1640–41) by Argyll. After the Scottish intervention in the English civil war, Montrose was created marquess and lieutenant general of Scotland by the king. He made an unsuccessful attempt to invade Scotland, then visited the Highlands in disguise and organized a royalist force there. He then defeated the Lowland Presbyterian army of Argyll in six engagements, of which Tippermuir, Inverlochy, and Kilsyth were the greatest (1644–45). Never in command of a very large army, Montrose was successful because of his brilliant strategy and his spirited leadership of the fierce Highland clansmen, whose numbers were augmented by a small Irish force. He was in control of Scotland for a short time, but the defeat of Charles at Naseby (1645) left him without support, and he was finally defeated by David Leslie at Philiphaugh (1645). He fled (1646) to the Continent. In 1650, Montrose returned to Scotland to try to make the nominal rule of Charles II a reality there. However, his expedition was disavowed by Charles himself, and he was captured and hanged. Although the excesses of his wild troops have been sharply criticized, his reckless daring and his successes in battle have made Montrose a romantic figure in Scottish history. He was the author of poetry (ed. by G. L. Weir, 1938).
See biography by C. V. Wedgwood (2d ed. 1966).