Morazán, Francisco

Morazán, Francisco

(fränsēs`kō mōräsän`), 1799–1842, Central American statesman, b. Tegucigalpa, Honduras. He led the revolutionary army that overthrew (1829) the regime of Manuel José Arce and was proclaimed president of the Central American FederationCentral American Federation
or Central American Union,
political confederation (1825–38) of the republics of Central America—Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Salvador.
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 in 1830. The opponents of Guatemalan domination caused Morazán to move the capital from Guatemala to San Salvador. As a liberal he promoted education and abolished most monastic orders. The spiritual father of federalism in Central America, he fought vigorously for his ideals, but when elected for a second term he was unable to combat widespread apathy and the increasing opposition of the conservatives; his congress dissolved the federation in 1838. Nevertheless, in 1839 he attempted to recapture Guatemala from Rafael CarreraCarrera, Rafael
, 1814–65, president of Guatemala, a caudillo. He led the revolution against the anticlerical liberal government of Guatemala, and his ultimate success in 1840 helped to destroy the Central American Federation.
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, but was defeated. In the following year he went into voluntary exile until recalled in 1842 by Costa Rica and proclaimed president there. Again he attempted to restore Central American unity but was betrayed and shot Sept. 15, 1842, by his own partisans.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Morazán, Francisco

 

Born Oct. 3, 1792, in Tegucigalpa, Honduras; died Sept. 15, 1842, in San José, Costa Rica. Central American statesman and military leader.

Morazán was the son of a Creole from the French Antilles. While leader of the Liberal Party in the Central American Confederation, Morazán became head of the army in 1828; with the support of progessive forces, he liberated Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala from the despotic rule of reactionary forces led by the Conservative Party.

In 1830, Morazán was elected president of the Central American Confederation. In this post he furthered the growth of industry and commerce and carried out a number of reforms limiting church property; these reforms caused dissatisfaction among the Catholic clergy and led to a new outbreak of civil war and the dissolution of the confederation in 1839. In 1842, Morazán undertook an armed attempt to restore the confederation but was arrested, handed over to a field court-martial, and executed.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.