Moriscos


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Moriscos

(môrĭs`kōz) [Span.,=Moorish], Moors converted to Christianity after the Christian reconquest (11th–15th cent.) of Spain. The Moors who had become subjects of Christian kings as the reconquest progressed to the 15th cent. were called Mudéjares. They remained Muslim, and their religion and customs were generally respected. After the fall of Granada (1492), Cardinal Jiménez converted many Moors by peaceful means. However, the rigorous treatment of those who refused conversion or apostatized from the new faith led to an uprising (1500–1502) in Granada. This was soon suppressed. Faced with choosing between conversion or banishment, the majority accepted conversion, but many continued secretly to practice Islam. The Moriscos at times provided the Ottoman Turks with information facilitating Turkish raids on the Spanish coast. Persecuted by the Spanish Inquisition and subjected to restrictive legislation (1526, 1527), the Moriscos rose in a bloody rebellion (1568–71), which Philip II put down with the help of John of Austria. The Moriscos prospered in spite of persecutions and furthered Spanish agriculture, trade, and industries. However, in 1609 Philip III, influenced by Lerma, decreed their expulsion for both religious and political reasons.

Bibliography

See H. C. Lea, The Moriscos of Spain (1901, repr. 1969).

Moriscos

 

the members of the Muslim population who remained in Spain after the fall of the emirate of Granada in 1492.

Forcibly converted to Christianity, the majority of Moriscos continued to profess Islam in secret. They were harshly persecuted by the Inquisition and were forbidden to use Arabic or to give their children Arabic names; Arabic books were burned. Tens of thousands of Moriscos perished on the pyres of the Inquisition.

The Morisco rebellion of 1568–70 was ruthlessly crushed, and a considerable number of Moriscos were exiled to the barren interior of Spain. In 1609–10 the Moriscos were expelled from Spain. The majority resettled in North Africa; in Morocco they formed the oligarchic republic of Bou Regreg, which existed from 1627 to 1641, while many others settled along the Algerian coast and in northern Tunisia.

The expulsion of the Moriscos had grave economic consequences for Spain’s southern provinces. At the same time it contributed to the rise of horticulture, irrigated cultivation, and craft industries in Tunisia.

References in periodicals archive ?
10) Of course, many of these slaves were not of sub-Saharan African origin; the enslavement of North African and Spanish Moors and moriscos captured in battle or in raids continued throughout this period, as did the sale of slaves along established Mediterranean and trans-Saharan trade routes.
Scholarship on the Mudejars and Moriscos has drawn on a limited number of legal responsa in order to describe the status of Muslims in Spain and to characterize their social life and relationships with Christian authorities.
THE CONQUEST OF THE AMERICAS IN RELATION TO THE CONQUEST OF AL-ANDALUS: GENOCIDE/EPISTEMICIDE AGAINST INDIGENOUS PEOPLES, MARRANOS, MORISCOS, AND AFRICANS
Nos presenta Louis Cardaillac su libro Dos destinos tragicos en paralelo: los moriscos de Espana y los indios de America, publicado el ano pasado con el sello editorial de El Colegio de Jalisco.
Moroccan journalist Ahmed Bensalh Es-salhi wrote an op-ed in Correo DiplomA tico, in which he lamented that the "decision to grant Spanish citizenship to the grandchildren of the Hebrews in Spain in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, while ignoring the Moriscos, the grandsons of the Muslims, is without doubt, flagrant segregation and unquestionable discrimination, as both communities suffered equally in Spain at that time.
Segun Manrique, el deseo de permanecer en territorio iberico tras la expulsion en los siglos XVI y XVII habria obligado a algunos moriscos y mudejares a camuflar su identidad y emigrar a America como esclavos, con el riesgo de ser ajusticiados por la inquisicion.
The 12 papers in this second volume focus mostly on the Moriscos, converted Muslims.
As my opening anecdote suggests, I will focus on a very specific category of vaguely identified aliens, namely the Spanish Moriscos, since it is they who are the protagonists of what I have called 'the paradox of the alien', or the act of 'paradoxing the alien'; (6) that is, Moriscos are representatives of both the alien-within, frequently encountered in early modern Europe, and of the alien-withinthe-alien insofar as they are simultaneously Spanish but also alleged crypto Muslims, as well as being, in a nominal sense, Catholic converts.
Es cierto que la conversion general mudejar y la rebelion a que dio lugar provocaron la quiebra de las rentas ordinarias del reino, pero su efecto duro solo un par de anos (28), ya que pronto se observa una recuperacion de las mismas y el sistema tendio a mantener en terminos globales una presion fiscal creciente o al menos estable sobre los vencidos, a pesar de que el decenio de 1500-1510 fue probablemente el peor de la historia del reino en lo que se refiere a huidas masivas de moriscos allende (29).
The reign of fear to which the author alludes in the title refers to inquisitorial procedures, which hardened the hatred of persecuted groups like the moriscos (persons of Moorish descent) and laid the groundwork for corruption and abuse at all levels of bureaucracy and society.
Fuchs thus eschews transhistorical temptations in order to offer a more synchronic analysis of how Spain's own relationship to its Moorishness changed during the years between the 1492 fall of Granada and the expulsion of Spain's Moriscos in 1609.