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see grammargrammar,
description of the structure of a language, consisting of the sounds (see phonology); the meaningful combinations of these sounds into words or parts of words, called morphemes; and the arrangement of the morphemes into phrases and sentences, called syntax.
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the minimal meaningful part of an utterance and one of the basic units of a language system. The characteristics of morphemes are meaningfulness—morphemes convey lexical or grammatical meaning; repeatability—morphemes retain the same (or similar) meaning and the same (or similar) form when they appear in different contexts; and nonreducibility— morphemes cannot be further divided into parts having the same characteristics. The morpheme is also defined as the smallest meaningful part of a word and as a class of morphs possessing specific characteristics.

The detection of a morpheme begins with the division of utterances in a language into morphs; then, morphs similar in content and form and found in complementary or noncontrastive distribution (not causing differences of meaning) are combined into a single morpheme. For example, the Russian morpheme drug, “friend,” has the morphs drug~druzh~druz’ This level of analysis, which establishes the allomorphs of a single morpheme, is called identification. Identification is followed by the classification of the morpheme. According to their position in the language system, morphemes are divided into free morphemes capable of behaving as independent words, such as English day, German Tag, and Russian tikh; bound morphemes that occur only as part of a word, such as the plural formant -s in English days, or the adjectival ending -ii in Russian tikhii, “quiet“); and relatively bound morphemes that may occur in both free and bound form, such as Russian do, used as preposition and as prefix, in doletef do reki, “to fly up to the river.”

Morphemes are divided by function into auxiliary (affixal) and nonauxiliary (radical), of which the former are usually bound and the latter free. As a rule, the number of affixal morphemes is limited to a few dozen, while the number of radical morphemes is unlimited. Affixal morphemes are divided according to types of meaning conveyed, into derivational (word-forming), relational (word-altering, or inflectional), and relational-derivational (form-creating). The last two categories are often combined under the term “word-altering.”

Morphemes may convey meaning not only by their phonological presence in a given word but also by their absence (zero ending, zero allomorph). For example, the Russian word stol, “table,” is construed as nominative singular since it lacks the morphemic plural marker -y (Russian stoly, “tables“) as well as any relational morphemes indicating oblique case (the sign for zero ending is -#, as in stol[-#]). Most linguists regard the morpheme as a unit that correlates linguistic expression with linguistic content, that is, as a two-sided semiotic unit. Less often, the morpheme is regarded as the smallest unit of linguistic expression.


References in periodicals archive ?
In the Morpho-syntactic Comprehension test (MC), based on results described in Table 1, items presented difficulty levels ranging from -0.
Instead, we propose seven broad classes of Bengali compound noun MWEs considering their morpho-syntactic flexibilities, as follows:
Morpho-syntactic errors were the focus of research in the publication by Crespo Garcia (1999).
We also expect that the Semantic Anaphora measure of working memory span should yield higher and more reliable correlations with inferential performance than the standard reading span measure (RST), and the Morpho-Syntactic Anaphora measure.
There are a number of studies examining the linguistic properties of e-mail and other computer mediated communication (Baron 2001; Yates 1996); however, less is known about SMS lexical, morpho-syntactic and vernacular verities in cell phone messaging.
In [6] there are two main categories of generalized context patterns: morpho-syntactic (e.
Crucially, it is the semantics of prototypical members of a category that determine the morpho-syntactic characteristics of that category.
Deuchar and Quay also studied the child's morpho-syntactic development and found that the earliest signs of the development of morpho-syntactic rules occurred when two-word utterances were produced, at age 1;7 (MLU of 1.
The next task is to seek morpho-syntactic characteristics of compound verbs.
Scholars from the US and France address Ferdinand de SaussureAEs influence on descriptive and historical analysis in historical linguistics; the connection between inflectional paradigms as an occasional determinant of sound change; the nature of the phoneme and morpheme to arrive at an intermediate entity, the morpho(pho)neme; a framework for examining the modification of morpho-syntactic categories and the rise of new patterns to express them; and language change in contemporary linguistics communities.
The functions of linguistic expressions of affect are classified into intensifiers and specifiers and further breakdown is made in terms of lexical and morpho-syntactic variables.