Morphogenetic Movements

Morphogenetic Movements

 

the flowing of cells and cell layers in the developing embryo of an animal, which results in the formation of germ layers and organ primordia.

The most intensive morphogenetic movements occur during gastrulation, when part of the cellular material is shifted to the interior of the embryo (invagination), while the remaining cells form its surface (epiboly). As a result, the material of the primordia of axial organs occupies a terminal position. Morphogenetic movement in almost all chordates has been studied by marking certain areas of the egg or blastula and tracing the subsequent fate of the marked areas.

Morphogenetic movements may involve the flow of cells and their layers over relatively long distances (for example, during invagination of the chordamesoderm in amphibians); they may also involve changes in the shape of primordia remaining at the same site by the formation of folds and bends in the cell layer (for example, invagination of the wall of the optic vesicle and the division of the brain rudiment into the cerebral vesicles). The basis for morphogenetic movement lies in the capacity of cells to move and to form contacts with one another and with a substrate (adhesiveness). Cells of different types differ in their degrees of mobility and adhesiveness; contacts between homogeneous cells are formed more readily than between cells of different types (elective affinity).

G. M. IGNAT’EVA

References in periodicals archive ?
After cleavage and gastrulation, a large lobe (the preoral lobe) forms at the anterior end, and the embryo undergoes extensive morphogenetic movements to set up the vitellaria body plan.
The anterior and posterior regions undergo morphogenetic movements that distort the bilateral symmetry and transform the patterning of the ciliary bands.
In most vitellaria larvae described, the anterior end undergoes extensive morphogenetic movements in the establishment of the transverse ciliary bands on the preoral lobe, and posterior structures shift to the right (clockwise in a ventral view) (Cisternas and Byrne, 2005; Fourgon et al., 2005; this study).
The ciliary band similarities in brooded and pelagic vitellaria larvae suggest that the same morphogenetic movements are at work and that, in O.
During gastrulation, the massive and precisely orchestrated movements of the cells which shape the embryo are called morphogenetic movements (from the Greek words morphi and genesis), he explained.
Their work also sheds light on the mechanical integration of individual morphogenetic movements, ie, how one movement is coupled to others giving rise to the three dimensional architecture of the embryo.
They complete the symposium by reviewing recent work on simulation of gastrulation and cell cycles as well as on the morphogenetic movements of the dorsally located 40-cell notochord.
This review discusses the recent observations of morphogenetic movements and cell cycles and divisions along with tissue specifications during ascidian embryogenesis.
In several organisms, the insertion of the long gap phases during development is known to be correlated with morphogenetic movements. This phenomenon is thought to be required for coordination between cell division and movement (Duncan and Su, 2004; Copp and Greene, 2010), because cells cannot perform these two events simultaneously; the cells must arrest one of the events during the occurrence of the other.
Determining the duration of each cell-cycle phase in these cells is important because this knowledge will identify the phase(s) at which the cell cycles are controlled to achieve the morphogenetic movements. The length of the interphases during embryogenesis is controlled at the S phase as well as at the G2 phase (McClelancl et al., 2009).
Regarding the mechanisms underlying this coordination, the regulation of cellular processes such as the cell cycle, cell division, and morphogenetic movement of multicellular bodies must be studied together with cell differentiation.
Gastrulation is the first major morphogenetic movement during embryogenesis for forming the digestive tube.