Moses Hess

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Hess, Moses


Born June 21, 1812, in Bonn; died Apr. 6, 1875, in Paris. German socialist and representative of “true socialism” of the 1840’s.

Hess’ socialist views were a synthesis of German idealism, Feuerbachian ethics, and French Utopian socialism. Marx and Engels felt that some of Hess’ ideas deserved “some recognition,” but that they had quickly been outdated and become reactionary (see Marx and Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3, p. 494). For a while, Hess joined the petit bourgeois faction of Willich and Schapper, and in the late 1850’s and early 1860’s he argued from the standpoint of bourgeois nationalism. He was one of the forerunners of Zionism, and in 1863 became a Lassallean. In the First International he presented a critique of Bakuninism.


Sozialistische Aufsätze, 1841-1847. Berlin, 1921.
Philosophische und sozialistische Schriften, 1837-1850. Berlin, 1961.


Marx, K., and F. Engels. Soch., 2nd ed., vols. 27, 28, 31, 32, 34, 37. (See index of proper names.)
Iz istorii formirovaniia i razvitiia marksizma. Moscow, 1959. Pages 61-65, 114-78.
Korniu, O. Karl Marks i Fridrikh Engel’s, vols. 1, 3. Moscow, 1959-68. (Translated from German.)


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On one side were those socialists like Moses Hess and the young Friedrich Engels who sought to discover a principle of harmony in social relations, he says, and on the other the poet Heinrich Heine and the young Karl Marx, who developed a new perspective articulating revolutionary rupture, thereby redefining the very notion of politics itself.
In 1862 German philosopher Moses Hess published a book titled" Rome and Jerusalem: The Last National Question".
To show how this is so, S0rensen works from the writings, books, and journals of Arnold Ruge, Bruno Bauer, Moses Hess, and Karl Marx.
While detailing a number of Jewish engagements with Spinoza from Saul Asch to Moses Hess, this chapter turns on a discussion of bow liberal humanist author Berthold Auerbach, with the publication of his Spinoza novel (and of his translation, the first complete German one, of Spinoza's works, both in 1837), proffers a Spinoza incarnating a universal Judaism that portended the modern ideal of a universal human community.
Era una respuesta a una acusacion contra su revista por acercarse a las ideas comunistas bajo la influencia de Moses Hess y de los socialistas franceses.
It has been an important project of scholarship in German-Jewish Studies to shift into a minor key (Maimon, Franzos, Fried, Jelinek), to examine the interstices of German culture and the dominant paradigms of German-Jewish culture, to fill in the gaps, to blur minor and major, to expose the fauitlines between Maimon and Mendelssohn, Moses Hess and Heine; Celan and Fried.
You can pore through one of the earliest statements of the Zionist credo, Moses Hess' Rome and Jerusalem, but you will find not a single reference to 'Muslims' or 'Arabs.' Twice, the word 'Palestinian' enters this venerated text; the first time, it appears in connection with the training of Jewish youth for the "life of a Palestinian farmer;' and the second refers to the 'Jerushalmi Palestinian Talmud Sanhedrin.' Palestine always exists, inscribed on some divine tablet, as Israeli land; but there are no Palestinians.
(One such reader, the early Zionist Moses Hess, went so far as to acclaim him as a Jewish nationalist who successfully combined philosophical rigor with a love for the Jewish people.) Finally, because he left the synagogue without entering the church, Spinoza has been understood--especially in Israel, where he is very avidly studied--as the first secular Jew.
I'm afraid I cannot agree with the hypothesis suggested in 1992 by Philippe Bourrinet, the editor of the French edition of the article, and taken up by Kevin Anderson in his otherwise superb introduction, that the document is a veiled critique of the "true socialist" editors of the Gesellschaftspiegel, such as Moses Hess. In fact, there is not a single word in the paper which may suggest such an orientation.
For example, in 1862, Moses Hess, a German Jewish socialist who had previously collaborated with Marx and Engels, published Rome and Jerusalem, a call for Jewish nationalism whose very title showed the influence of Italian nationalism.
en el transcurso de su muy interesante y, si me permite decirlo, muy generosa resena de mi conferencia sobre Moses Hess en su numero del 4 de diciembre (38) (que le agradezco profundamente), me atribuye al menos una opinion que no comparto.
Moses Hess and Modern Jewish Identity, by Ken Koltun-Fromm.