Maimonides

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Maimonides

(mīmŏn`ĭdēz) or

Moses ben Maimon

(mī`mən), 1135–1204, Jewish scholar, physician, and philosopher, the most influential Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages, b. Córdoba, Spain, d. Cairo. He is sometimes called Rambam, from the initials of the words Rabbi Moses ben Maimon. His organization and systemization of the corpus of Jewish oral law, is called the Mishneh Torah [the Torah Reviewed], known in English as the Strong Hand, and is still used as a standard compilation of halakahhalakah
or halacha
[Heb.,=law], in Judaism, the body of law regulating all aspects of life, including religious ritual, familial and personal status, civil relations, criminal law, and relations with non-Jews.
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. He also produced a number of discourses on legal topics; a work on logic; a treatise on the calendar; and several medical books, including an important work on hygiene. His great philosophical work is the Moreh Nevukhim (1190, tr., Guide for the Perplexed, 1963), written in Arabic, in which he explained the esoteric ideas in the Bible, formulated a proof of the existence of God, expounded the principles of creation, and elucidated baffling metaphysical and religious problems. The Moreh Nevukhim, which reflects Maimonides's great knowledge of Aristotelian philosophy and attempts to reconcile it with the tenets of Jewish theology, dominated Jewish thought, helped introduce Aristotle to medieval Christian philosophers, and has exerted a profound influence upon Christian thinkers.

Bibliography

See biographies by S. Zeitlin (2d ed. 1955), A. J. Heschel (1981), and M. Halbertal (2013); studies by J. Melber (1968), M. Fox (1990), and S. B. Nuland (2005).

Maimonides

 

(Moses ben Maimon). Born Mar. 30, 1135, in Córdoba; died Dec. 13, 1204, in Fustat, near Cairo. Jewish philosopher of the Middle Ages.

In 1148, Maimonides left Spain because of the Almohad dynasty’s persecution of Jews; he lived in Morocco and Palestine, settling in Egypt in 1165. In 1187 he became a court physician to Sultan Saladin of Cairo. Maimonides’ chief philosophical work, Guide of the Perplexed, was published in Arabic in Egypt in 1190 and subsequently translated into Hebrew and Latin (a Russian translation is in S. N. Grigorian’s Iz istoriifilosofii Srednei Azii i Irana 7-12 vv., 1960).

Maimonides is the most outstanding representative of Jewish philosophy of the Middle Ages. He based his system on the teachings of Aristotle as interpreted by Arab thinkers. By synthesizing revelation and speculation, the Bible and Aristotle, Maimonides went beyond the limits of orthodoxy; his rationalism and “purification” of truth from miracle brought him the enmity of the adherents to religious tradition. He exerted an influence on the development of Scholasticism in the 13th-15th centuries, particularly influencing the medieval Aristotelians Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas.

REFERENCES

Istoriia filosofii, vol. 1. Moscow, 1940. Pages 454-57.
Moses ben Maimon: Sein Leben, seine Werke und sein Einfluss, vols. 1-2. Leipzig, 1908-14.
Bamberger, F. Das System des Maimonides. Berlin, 1935.
Sarachek, J. Faith and Reason: The Conflict Over the Rationalism of Maimonides. Williamsport, Pa., 1935.
Baeck, L. Maimonides. Diisseldorf, 1954.
Silver, D. J. Maimonidean Criticism and Maimonidean Controversy, 1180-1240. Leiden, 1965.
Zac, S. Maimonide. Paris, 1965.

S. S. AVERINTSEV

Maimonides

also called Rabbi Moses ben Maimon. 1135--1204, Jewish philosopher, physician, and jurist, born in Spain. He codified Jewish law in Mishneh Torah (1180)
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Misogyny in the Work of Moses Maimonides. (Scarlett Moore):
(19) Moses Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, "Hilchot Matnot Aniyiim" ("Laws of Gifts to the Poor"), 6.9; what follows uses the online translation via Chabad-Lubavitch, which is available at http://www.chabad.org/library/article-cdo/aid/986699/jewish/ Matnot-Aniyiim.htm.
HENRY JAMES SAID, "The artist is present in every page of every book from which he sought so assiduously to eliminate himself." Moses Maimonides crafted in his major works on Jewish law and theology a literary tone that is all anonymity and authority.
Using both the Bible and numerous Christian and in some cases Jewish scholars (such as Moses Maimonides), he makes a strong case or a broader view in applying Biblical commands to contemporary moral and political issues.
Moses Maimonides, the great mediaeval Jewish philosopher, said that the whole purpose of the commandments was to teach compassion.
Despite the reputation of Moses Maimonides (1138-1204) as an unrivaled Talmudist and his stunning achievement as a codifier of Jewish law, to a significant degree he has, to the chagrin of Menachem Kellner, Professor of Jewish Thought at the University of Haifa, long been honored more in the breach than in the observance.
Researchers have traced the mistaken impression that milk increases mucus secretion back to the 12th century Treatise on Asthma by the Jewish physician Moses Maimonides. Surveys show the belief lingers today, even among physicians, who may still tell patients to avoid milk products when they suffer from colds, allergies or asthma.
Lowney's attention--the intellectual emphasis on reason applied to religion championed by Moses Maimonides and Averroes, as well as the promise of a mystical understanding common to all three religions.
Soup was first prescribed as a cold and asthma remedy by 12th century physician Moses Maimonides. But modern research published in the journal Chest in 1978 revealed chicken soup is effective to help you recover from a cold.
The Vatican will loan the work of Moses Maimonides, one of Judaism's most celebrated rabbis and sages, to Israel this year in a gesture meant to improve relations between Catholics and Jews.
Scholarly books follow in their wake, including Herbert Davidson's encompassing Moses Maimonides, the Man and his Works.
Rabbi Moses Maimonides, the great Jewish thinker, held that only negative descriptions can be given, i.e., God is not finite, not mortal, etc.