Mosul

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Mosul

(mō`səl, mōso͞ol`), Arab. al Mawsil, city (1987 pop. 664,221), provincial capital, N Iraq, on the Tigris River, opposite the ruins of NinevehNineveh
, ancient city, capital of the Assyrian Empire, on the Tigris River opposite the site of modern Mosul, Iraq. A shaft dug at Nineveh has yielded a pottery sequence that can be equated with the earliest cultural development in N Mesopotamia.
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. It is the largest city in N Iraq and the third largest city in the country. Trade in agricultural goods and exploitation of oil in the nearby oil fields are the two main occupations of the inhabitants. Mosul has an oil refinery; its productivity in the 1980s was hindered by the Iran-Iraq WarIran-Iraq War,
1980–88, protracted military conflict between Iran and Iraq. It officially began on Sept. 22, 1980, with an Iraqi land and air invasion of western Iran, although Iraqi spokespersons maintained that Iran had been engaging in artillery attacks on Iraqi towns
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. While most of the urban population is Arab, the surrounding region has a large Kurdish population. The city is the seat of Mosul Univ. and a center of Nestorian Christianity.

Mosul was the chief city of N Mesopotamia from the 8th to 13th cent., when it was devastated by the Mongols. The city remained poor and shabby through its occupation by the Persians (1508) and the Turks (1534–1918). Under the British occupation and mandate (1918–32) it regained its stature as the chief city of the region. Its possession by Iraq was disputed by Turkey (1923–25) but was confirmed by the League of Nations (1926). Many of Mosul's historic mosques and shrines as well as an ancient monastery nearby were destroyed by Islamic StateIslamic State
(IS), Sunni Islamic militant group committed to the establishment of an Islamic caliphate that would unite Muslims in a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state.
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 militants after they captured the city in 2014. The Iraqi government began an offensive to retake Mosul in late 2016, winning control of the city by mid-2017. Thousands died and much of W Mosul, including the old city, was reduced to rubble in the fighting.

Mosul

 

(al Mawsil), a city in northern Iraq, on the right bank of the Tigris River; administrative center of the Ninawa muhafaza. Population, 343,000 (1968). Railroad station and highway junction. Mosul has textile, food, leather goods and footwear, and metalworking industries. There is commerce in grain, fruit, and livestock. Nearby oil is extracted (Ayn Zalah), and there are cement and asphalt plants.

According to some sources, Mosul was a suburb of ancient Nineveh. In 641 the city was occupied by the Arabs and became part of the Arab Caliphate. Because it was located on the most important trade routes, Mosul became a major trade and handicraft center. Between the tenth and 12th centuries it was the capital of the various feudal states. In 1261, Mosul was taken and plundered by the Mongols. Almost continually from the early 16th century to 1918, the city belonged to the Ottoman Turks; in the 1860’s it was made the administrative center of the Mosul vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. After World War I, Mosul was occupied by British troops; in 1920 it became part of Iraq.

The medieval city, which was surrounded by a stone wall (12th century; destroyed in 1743), contains the Great Mosque of Nur-al-din (also known as Jami al-Kabir, 1170–72, reconstructed from the 12th to the 19th century) and its minaret (12th century), the al-Izziya Madrasa (12th century), the ruins of the Qara Saray Palace (13th century), the mausoleum of Yahya Abi’l Qasim (13th century), and the mausoleum of Aun al-Din (1247). Christian churches include those of Mar Ahudammah (tenth century) and Mar Shimun (13th century, reconstructed in 1936). Outside the city walls are 20th-century blocks with a regular layout (architects R. Squire and others). Near Mosul is the mausoleum mosque of Nabi Yunus (tenth century; dome, 14th century).

REFERENCES

Mosul and Its Neighbouring District, 2nd ed. Baghdad, 1956.
Fiey, J. M. Mossoul chrétienne. Beirut, 1959.

Mosul

a city in N Iraq, on the River Tigris opposite the ruins of Nineveh: an important commercial centre with nearby Ayn Zalah oilfield; university. Pop.: 1 236 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
The coalition force trying to secure control of Mosul, Iraq's second largest city, is diverse, competitive; troops can't help wonder about governance afterward
Mosul, Iraq's second largest city, fell to IS in mid-June.
Syriac Patriarch Ignace Joseph III Younan has condemned the "mass cleansing" of Christians from Mosul, Iraq, by what he called a "bed of criminals" (Catholic News Service, 25 July 2014).
Summary: The Islamic State in Iraq and Sham, or the militant uprising of the Sunnis, has controlled Mosul, Iraq's second largest city, along with most of the provinces of Samara and Tikrit.
"Nothing can justify this criminal act."Militants are approaching Baghdad after overrunning Mosul, Iraq's second-largest city, in a spectacular military operation.Turkey says the jihadist group the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), which has taken control of swathes of Iraq, kidnapped 49 of its citizens at the Mosul consulate and took them to another part of the city.Another 31 Turkish truck drivers kidnapped by ISIL fighters on Tuesday were being held at a power station in Mosul, the foreign ministry said."I strongly condemn the violence we have seen in Iraq.
TIKRIT, Iraq (TAP) - Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) militants seized control, on Wednesday, of Saddam Hussein's hometown of Tikrit, a day after taking over Mosul, Iraq's second largest city, officials said.
Mosul, Iraq's third largest city, has suffered turbulence and violence since the 2003 US-led invasion that overthrew Saddam Hussein, and it remains an al-Qaeda stronghold.
FIVE people, including a child, were killed in two attacks near Mosul, Iraq, yesterday.
In October 2008, more than 12,000 Christians fled Mosul, Iraq's second largest city, following an upsurge in attacks, threats and intimidation, with some returning later after hearing that the security situation had improved.
THE Pope has approved the election of a new archbishop just 20 months after the body of kidnapped catholic Archbishop Paulos Faraj Rahho of Mosul, Iraq, was recovered.
The recent attacks against Christians in Mosul, Iraq, are shocking, 'Christians flee Mosul raid' (GDN, October 12).
Army Soldiers from the 415th Civil Affairs Battalion make an assessment of a local market April 15, 2008, in Mosul, Iraq.