Mountain Meadows

Mountain Meadows,

small valley in extreme SW Utah, where in 1857 a party of some 140 emigrants bound for California were massacred. It was a period when friction between Mormons and non-Mormons was acute, with Mormons bitterly resenting the coming of U.S. troops to enforce federal laws in their territory. Earlier that year a Mormon convocation had declared the independence of Utah from the United States, and Mormon hostility toward westward-bound travelers had escalated. In Sept., 1857, a party of emigrants from Arkansas, with a few from Missouri and Illinois, led by Charles Fancher, encamped at Mountain Meadows, a well-known camp site on the Spanish Trail. There they were attacked by a large band of Mormons, many disguised as members of the local Paiute tribe, allegedly accompanied by real Paiutes and apparently led by Mormon John D. Lee.

After three days (Sept. 8–11) of defending themselves behind their wagons, the emigrants were approached under a flag of truce by the Mormons, who offered to protect them in a retreat to Cedar City but instructed them to go unarmed and on foot, ostensibly to allay the suspicions of the Paiute. While following these instructions, the entire party, with the exception of 17 of the youngest children, were massacred. The Mormons were charged with inciting and directing the attack, and anti-Mormon feeling was intensified; Mormons attempted to blame the attack on the Paiutes. Several investigations were made, but it was not until 1874 that Lee, a fanatical Mormon and adopted son of Brigham YoungYoung, Brigham
, 1801–77, American religious leader, early head of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, b. Whitingham, Vt. Brigham Young was perhaps the greatest molder of Mormonism, his influence having a greater effect even than that of the church's founder,
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, was arrested. In 1875, Lee and three associates accused of complicity were excommunicated. Lee was convicted of murder and in 1877 was put to death at the Mountain Meadows site. No other members of the raiding party were ever charged. Into the 1990s the Paiutes continued to be widely blamed for the massacre, which remains a controversial event in the history of the American West.

Bibliography

See studies by J. Brooks (2d ed. 1962, repr. 1970), W. Bagley (2002), S. Denton (2003), and R. W. Walker et al. (2011).

References in classic literature ?
Then, too, she loved nature, and with generous imagination he changed the scene of their reading - sometimes they read in closed-in valleys with precipitous walls, or in high mountain meadows, and, again, down by the gray sand-dunes with a wreath of billows at their feet, or afar on some volcanic tropic isle where waterfalls descended and became mist, reaching the sea in vapor veils that swayed and shivered to every vagrant wisp of wind.
This biography of Brigham Young (1801-1877) presents him as a complex leader in the American West and president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, detailing his key roles as a Mormon and Utah's first territorial governor, including his accomplishments in leading the church and founding the territory of Utah, as well as his shortcomings, such as his Indian policies and attempts at Mormon Reformation and the United Order, and his unorthodox doctrines, such as the practice of polygamy, in addition to the events of Mountain Meadows in 1857.
"Brigham Young and the Expansion of the Mormon Faith" addresses such controversial issues as the practice of polygamy (Young himself had fifty-five wives), relations and conflicts between Mormons and Indians, and the circumstances and aftermath of the horrific events of Mountain Meadows in 1857.
Other darker chapters, such as the Mountain Meadows Massacre and dealings with African and Native Americans, occurred during Young's watch.
Lifelong member of Leavenworth, Amanda Ledezma, found her niche in caring for others--Ledezma is the current Director of Nursing Services at Mountain Meadows, but has been a staple in the senior living campus for 11 years and played an integral role in the inception of the memory care unit.
Mormon leaders conspired with the Paiute Native American tribe to stage an attack on the Fancher party in what eventually became known as the 1857 Mountain Meadows massacre.
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Mae Wil Aaron hefyd yn cynnig damcaniaeth am yr hyn ddigwyddodd yn Mountain Meadows - "awr dduaf Mormoniaeth" - pan laddwyd 120 o ymfudwyr yn cynnwys plant gan griw o Formoniaid mewn ynosodiad erchyll.
Take, for example, what happened at Mountain Meadows in southern Utah in 1857 .