Mountain Soils

Mountain Soils

 

soils that are found in the mountains and that belong to almost all the soil types known on earth. The distribution of mountain soils is subject mainly to a vertical (elevation) zonation; the soils change with ascent into the mountains depending on changes in climatic conditions. Like soils in level areas, mountain soils are subdivided into tundra, podzol, brown-forest, gray-forest, chernozem, chestnut, brown semidesert, sierozem, brown, red-earth, yellow-red ferralitic of humid tropical forests, solonchak, marshy, and many other soils. Most mountain soils form on very steep slopes where, as a result of denudation processes, their shallowness, gravel-like quality, and wealth of primary minerals may be observed. The large amount of primary minerals makes intrasoil weathering very important in the formation of mountain soils, especially in warm, humid climates where weathering is quite intensive. Mountain soils are characterized by an extensively developed slope (lateral) flow of soil moisture owing to the considerable steepness of the slopes and the high water permeability of the gravel-like rock masses. These features of mountains soils, together with the uniqueness of the relief conditions under which they are formed, make it necessary to distinguish them from soils in level areas and to identify them on soil maps as mountain tundra soil, mountain red-earth soil, mountain chernozem, and so on.

V. M. FRIDLAND

References in classic literature ?
On mountain soil I first drew life: The mists of the Taglay have shed Nightly their dews upon my head, And, I believe, the winged strife And tumult of the headlong air Have nestled in my very hair.
Flow along unsaturated cracks in weathered bedrock is a common preferential flow type in granite mountain soils (e.g.
Caption: Mountain soils and slopes can provide a patchwork of diversity.
Without the protective cover of the forest, heavy rains will pound these exposed mountain soils, fresh cuts will need to be made, and so the cycle repeats.
For one thing, mountain soils tend to be shallower; rain gets washed down to the valley floor so mountain soil doesn't have the same nutrients as the valley.
Only then there will be more percolation of rain water into the forest and mountain soils and there will be many perennially active water-springs in the mountain ranges to feed the streams in the mountains.
FAO, Understanding Mountain Soils: A contribution from mountain areas to the International Year of Soils 2015, by Romeo, R., Vita, A., Manuelli, S., Zanini, E., Freppaz, M.
The mountain soils are skeletal, resulting from altered crystalline schists, being affected by soil-flexion and surface erosion.
Topics include: greenhouse gas emissions from soils, land use change effects on soil carbon stocks in temperate regions, mountain soils in a changing climate, greenhouse gas balance in disturbed peat lands, and a summary of soil carbon in sensitive European ecosystems: from science to land management.