Mozarabs

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Mozarabs

(mōzâr`əbz), Christians of Muslim Spain. Their position was the usual one of Christians and Jews in Islam: they were a separate community, locally autonomous, and they paid a special tax in place of the requirement made of Muslims to serve in the army. In Spain the Christians had their own rulers, called counts, who were directly responsible to the Muslim emir or caliph; their taxes, separate from those of Muslims, were collected by special agents. They were allowed to maintain their hierarchy (the primate of Spain being the archbishop of Toledo), and they used the Visigothic, not the Muslim, canon law. Their liturgy, called the Mozarabic rite, was like that of ancient Gaul. It is preserved only in chapels at Toledo and Salamanca. For one or two periods, notably in the 11th cent., the Mozarabs were persecuted. The chief Mozarab centers were Toledo, Seville, and Córdoba. The Christians were probably Arabic-speaking, and their culture, basically Romance-Visigothic, was heavily influenced by Muslim civilization. In turn, the Mozarabs greatly influenced modern Spanish culture.

Mozarabs

 

Spanish Christians of the Iberian Peninsula who lived in lands conquered by the Arabs in the eighth century and who adopted Arabic language and culture.

Although most Mozarabs spoke not only Arabic but also the local Romance language, Arabization had progressed so far in a number of their communities that in the tenth century the Gospels were translated into Arabic for them. Many Mozarabs had Arabic names. Under the Umayyads they had their own legal code and law courts and their own churches and monasteries. Many Mozarabs were in the service of the Muslim rulers.

Under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, the position of the Mozarabs deteriorated sharply. They were forced to accept Islam; those who refused were executed or expelled from the country. The Mozarabs who resettled in the northern Iberian Peninsula for a long time remained distinct in their customs and language from the local inhabitants and exercised a great cultural influence on them.

References in periodicals archive ?
The influential ninth-century Mozarabic Cordoban scholar Paulus Alvarus presented Muhammad as a precursor to the Antichrist, particularly in the part of his moral treatise, the Indiculus luminosus, which examines the book of Daniel.
The importance given to the history of the Islamic world in the Prophetic Chronicle has been widely commented on by scholars, if only to point out its probable Mozarabic authorship, its Arabic sources, and the pro-Umayyad bias clearly identifiable in its historiographical agenda.
Without the usual wedding frivolities, they exchanged vows-in Spanish-in the Mozarabic Rite of Toledo held on their 14th anniversary as a couple.
The critical edition of the Visigothic and Mozarabic hymnody available to date was Clemens Blume's Hymnodia Gotica.
In al-Andalus Muslims and non-Muslims spoke Mozarabic, a Latin-based language with many lexical borrowings from the Arabic language.
The first letters of the fines of verse of "The Song of Sybil"--the best-known musical composition of the liturgy commonly called the "Mozarabic rite" (Donovan 167)--formed the acrostic [TEXTO IRREPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] (Gomez 160).
(30.) The books are the "Mozarabic Missal" and the "Latin Glossary of Silos"; for descriptions and illustrative plates of both, see Oriol Valls I Subira, trans.
I believe that the "Mozarabic" Catholic ritual, which was nothing but the surviving "Hispanic rite" used in Visigoth Spain, echoed the ritual of the Greek Orthodox Church, which was its contemporary before the Gregorian reform of the rite made the Latin ritual noticeably different from the Greek.
'Patristic Exegesis, Mozarabic Antiphons, and the VetusLatina"", Speculum, 40, pp.
(116) Furtado, R., <<Isidore's Histories in the Mozarabic scholarship of the eighth and the early ninth centuries>>, en Farmhouse Alberto, P.-Paniagua, D.
Rodrigo follows the example of the Mozarabic Chronicle of 754, and that of other early Christian histories by ignoring the religious component of the Muslim threat (10).
It moves through the Romanization of Iberia, the Visigothic and Muslim invasions, the now-extinct Mozarabic variety, and the reconquest and it is a broad overview of the external circumstances that affected the Spanish language during that period.