Mozarabs


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Mozarabs

(mōzâr`əbz), Christians of Muslim Spain. Their position was the usual one of Christians and Jews in Islam: they were a separate community, locally autonomous, and they paid a special tax in place of the requirement made of Muslims to serve in the army. In Spain the Christians had their own rulers, called counts, who were directly responsible to the Muslim emir or caliph; their taxes, separate from those of Muslims, were collected by special agents. They were allowed to maintain their hierarchy (the primate of Spain being the archbishop of Toledo), and they used the Visigothic, not the Muslim, canon law. Their liturgy, called the Mozarabic rite, was like that of ancient Gaul. It is preserved only in chapels at Toledo and Salamanca. For one or two periods, notably in the 11th cent., the Mozarabs were persecuted. The chief Mozarab centers were Toledo, Seville, and Córdoba. The Christians were probably Arabic-speaking, and their culture, basically Romance-Visigothic, was heavily influenced by Muslim civilization. In turn, the Mozarabs greatly influenced modern Spanish culture.

Mozarabs

 

Spanish Christians of the Iberian Peninsula who lived in lands conquered by the Arabs in the eighth century and who adopted Arabic language and culture.

Although most Mozarabs spoke not only Arabic but also the local Romance language, Arabization had progressed so far in a number of their communities that in the tenth century the Gospels were translated into Arabic for them. Many Mozarabs had Arabic names. Under the Umayyads they had their own legal code and law courts and their own churches and monasteries. Many Mozarabs were in the service of the Muslim rulers.

Under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, the position of the Mozarabs deteriorated sharply. They were forced to accept Islam; those who refused were executed or expelled from the country. The Mozarabs who resettled in the northern Iberian Peninsula for a long time remained distinct in their customs and language from the local inhabitants and exercised a great cultural influence on them.

References in periodicals archive ?
(8) Hitchcock, Richard, Mozarabs in Medieval and Early Modern Spain, Cornwall.
Quienes se mantuvieron fieles a sus creencias fueron denominados mozarabes (arabizados), voz que designaba a los cristianos que vivian bajo gobierno musulman.
55-72; Id., "Felix de Urgel: influencias islamicas encubiertas de judaismo y los mozarabes del siglo VIII", Acta historica et archaeologica medievalia, 22/2 (1999-2001), pp.
This book is a unique study of an almost totally forgotten Christian sect known from the past as the Mozarabes (Ar., the would be Arabs) of Spain.
(44) Popular lyric poetry (evident in the famous jarchas) was so common among the Hispano-Visigoths living as dhimmi under Muslim rule ("Mozarabs") as to be incorporated into the classic Arabic poetry of the muwassahah (muwashshah), a poetic form invented by a Mozarab, Muccadam de Cabra, m the ninth century.
RESUMEN: En el presente articulo se trata de interpretar los limitados, y en buena parte ya conocidos, datos sobre los cristianos de al-Andalus en la evolucion general de la sociedad andalusi, en la cual los mozarabes se enfrentaran a la disyuntiva de mantener el sistema feudal originario, o bien insertarse en el modo de produccion tributario de la sociedad islamica.
of the ruling race, Jews, Mudejars, and Mozarabs were governed under
Mozarabs in medieval and early modern Spain; identities and influences.
Gomez-Ruiz, Raul, Mozarabs, Hispanics, and the Cross.
In fact, in 1147, the Anglo-Norman and Portuguese crusaders set fire to the suburb that was inhabited by Mozarabs. Afonso Henriques's foral of 1170 allowed the free Moors to inhabit the ruins of the commune that would later be known as the Mouraria: The Conquest of Lisbon/De Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, ed.
The Arabic Language among the Mozarabs of Toledo during the 12th and 13th Centuries.
After the Moors had conquered Spain, Christians known as "Mozarabs" were allowed to practice their religion under the predominantly tolerant rule of the new masters.