Mozarabs


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Mozarabs

(mōzâr`əbz), Christians of Muslim Spain. Their position was the usual one of Christians and Jews in Islam: they were a separate community, locally autonomous, and they paid a special tax in place of the requirement made of Muslims to serve in the army. In Spain the Christians had their own rulers, called counts, who were directly responsible to the Muslim emir or caliph; their taxes, separate from those of Muslims, were collected by special agents. They were allowed to maintain their hierarchy (the primate of Spain being the archbishop of Toledo), and they used the Visigothic, not the Muslim, canon law. Their liturgy, called the Mozarabic rite, was like that of ancient Gaul. It is preserved only in chapels at Toledo and Salamanca. For one or two periods, notably in the 11th cent., the Mozarabs were persecuted. The chief Mozarab centers were Toledo, Seville, and Córdoba. The Christians were probably Arabic-speaking, and their culture, basically Romance-Visigothic, was heavily influenced by Muslim civilization. In turn, the Mozarabs greatly influenced modern Spanish culture.

Mozarabs

 

Spanish Christians of the Iberian Peninsula who lived in lands conquered by the Arabs in the eighth century and who adopted Arabic language and culture.

Although most Mozarabs spoke not only Arabic but also the local Romance language, Arabization had progressed so far in a number of their communities that in the tenth century the Gospels were translated into Arabic for them. Many Mozarabs had Arabic names. Under the Umayyads they had their own legal code and law courts and their own churches and monasteries. Many Mozarabs were in the service of the Muslim rulers.

Under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, the position of the Mozarabs deteriorated sharply. They were forced to accept Islam; those who refused were executed or expelled from the country. The Mozarabs who resettled in the northern Iberian Peninsula for a long time remained distinct in their customs and language from the local inhabitants and exercised a great cultural influence on them.

References in periodicals archive ?
In 761 it sided with the Fhiries against the Umayyadsjin 797 a Spanish convert to Islam, the poet Garbid, led a revolt; in 829 another convert, Haxim, led another revolt; and in 852 there was a Mozarab revolt, eventually crushed, provoked by the oppression of the Catholics under Umayyad emir Muhammad.
of the ruling race, Jews, Mudejars, and Mozarabs were governed under
The situation of the Mozarabs is traced from the earliest period through the 17th century, when he provides a discussion of the fate of Mozarabic liturgy under Catholic rule.
Gomez-Ruiz, Raul, Mozarabs, Hispanics, and the Cross.
In fact, in 1147, the Anglo-Norman and Portuguese crusaders set fire to the suburb that was inhabited by Mozarabs.
The Arabic Language among the Mozarabs of Toledo during the 12th and 13th Centuries.
The existence of the Mozarabs, according to Mikel de Epalza, represented for medieval and modern Christian society the lasting Christian character of Hispanic society; at the same time, the presence of the Mozarabs in the midst of the Muslim world is cited as proof of the inherent tolerance of Islam.
Quite obviously, Isidora's own tragedy grows out of her experiences as Immalee, and of her marginal religious status in Spain, a status which resembles that of the Moriscos and the Mozarabs.
Spanish Christians lived in this culture, and with Muslims, Mozarabs, and Arabicized Jewish communities.
Spanish Gothic Consciousness among the Mozarabs in al-Andalus [VIII-Xth Centuries]", en FERREIRO, A.
As the author states in his introduction, "unlike the Mudejars and Spanish Jews, who have been the subjects of very extensive study in our times, the Mozarabs of the twelfth century and later are in some respects 'a forgotten community' as far as modern scholarship is concerned" (p.
The Mozarabs in the Kingdom of Leon: 8th-11th Centuries