(13) Unlike Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and other scholars who were persecuted for refusing to submit to the state imposed Mu'tazili
doctrine of the created Qur'an, al-Muhasibi seemed to have escaped the infamous mihnah or inquisition instituted by the caliph al-Ma'mun, (14) a fact that was probably due to his low profile relative to other more prominent scholars like Imam Ahmad, and his own aversion to the public life and consequently his negligible political or social influence amongst the general populace.
Throughout its long timeline, from the fourth/ninth century to the eighth/ thirteenth century, the Kalam discourse was largely dominated by the dialectics of Ash'aris, Traditionalists, Mu'tazilis
, and Shi'is (especially Zaydis and Isma'ilis to some extent).
al-As'ari presenta este problema para debatir con los mu'tazilies
: algunos de estos sostienen que Allah ordena los actos de sus criaturas, mientras que otros piensan que no; estos ultimos, dice al-Asari, piensan que los actos no son resultado de una coercion divina (cfr.
It has generally been held that his work was ignored by Mu'tazili
scholars of his time, and passed down among students of medicine for a century until it was revived and espoused by a Mu'tazili
leader in Central Asia a century later.
232/846), who was a rationalist Mu'tazili
theologian, introduced the theory of sarfa.
In chapter IV, Fauzan discusses the works of Harun Nasution, who was influenced by both the rational tradition of the Mu'tazili
group and the neo-modernist approach of Nurcholis Madjid.
(83) In these two debates, we may detect a clear shift in Abduh's expose away from the Ash'ari and towards a more explicit Mu'tazili
, a theological position Abduh had consciously attempted to eschew.
Regarding some broader views of essence and existence, the ash'ari mutakalimun (exponents of kalam) held that existence and essence are the same for the Necessary Existent (wajib al-wujud) and the contingent beings, while according to mu'tazili
kalam only existence has the same meaning for the Necessary Existent and the contingent beings.
She also shows, through careful and extensive citation, Pseudo-Mawardi's intellectual debt to and interaction with both Mu'tazili
thought (especially that of the theologian al-Ka'bi, who was resident and teaching in Khurasan at the very time when Pseudo-Mawardi wrote) and also the Kindian philosophical tradition.
Al-Sahib Ibn 'Abbad Promoter of Rational Theology: Two Mu'tazili
Kalam Texts From the Cairo Geniza
The authors account for both Shiite and Sunni perspectives when offering exegetical commentary and translating verses (see, for example, SQ commentary on Q 33:33), and have maintained translations of creed that can mutually support the various theological orientations that predominate in Islamic thought (Athari, Ash'ari, Maturidi, and Mu'tazili
In the history of Kalam, this analogy was used by various theological schools including the Hashawl (al-Hashwiyya), the Mu'tazili
, and the Ash'ari.