Muhammad Ayub Khan


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Ayub Khan, Muhammad

(məhăm`ĭd ä`yo͝ob kän), 1907–74, military leader and president (1958–69) of Pakistan. He was commissioned in the British Indian army in 1928 and saw active service as a battalion commander in World War II. After 1947, when the state of Pakistan was created, he assumed command of military forces in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), and in 1951 he became commander in chief of the Pakistan army. He served (1954–56) as defense minister. In 1958, after a military coup, Ayub Khan became president; he was confirmed in office by a referendum (Feb., 1960). He launched a vigorous program of land reform and economic development and also inaugurated a system of what he called "basic democracies," tiers of local government councils that also served as electoral colleges. Martial law was lifted in 1962, and a new constitution that year gave the executive enormous powers. Ayub Khan was returned to office in 1965, defeating Fatimah Jinnah, sister of the founder of Pakistan. In the same year, he led the nation in a war with India, but the conflict was ended by the Tashkent Declaration of Jan., 1966. Despite economic growth, continuing economic and social inequalities, the disadvantaged position of East Pakistan, and limitation of civil liberties provoked increasing discontent with his regime. Early in 1969, Ayub Khan announced that he would not seek reelection in 1970, but unrest continued and in March he resigned power to a martial-law government headed by Gen. Muhammad Yahya KhanYahya Khan, Agha Muhammad
, 1917–80, Pakistani general and president (1969–71). He fought with the British in World War II, and rose through the Pakistan army following independence, becoming chief of the general staff (1957–62) and helping to bring General
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.

Bibliography

See his Speeches and Statements (8 vol., 1959–66) and Friends, Not Masters: A Political Autobiography (1967); study by L. Ziring (1971).

Ayub Khan, Muhammad

 

Born May 14, 1907, in West Pakistan; Pathan by nationality. Statesman; political and military figure.

Ayub was graduated from Aligarh University in India and from the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, England. Commissioned in 1928, he served as a battalion commander in World War II (1939–45). He was commander in chief of the Pakistani army in 1951–54 and 1956–58 and minister of defense in 1954–55. In October 1958, after a coup d’état, Ayub moved to govern the country as both administrative and executive head. In 1959 he was named field marshal and in 1960 was elected president. On his initiative Pakistan ended martial law in 1962, introduced a new constitution, elected the National Assembly (parliament), began to introduce measures for agrarian reform, and allowed the political parties that had been outlawed in October 1958 to resume their activity. In January 1965, Ayub was reelected president.

According to the constitution of 1962, Ayub at the same time headed the president’s cabinet of ministers (the government) and was commander in chief of the country’s armed forces. In 1963 he headed the ruling party, the Muslim League. In 1965 and 1967, Ayub visited the Soviet Union and in January 1966 took part in the Tashkent meeting of the heads of the governments of Pakistan and India. In March 1969 he resigned from the presidency and handed over his full powers to Yahya Khan, who was commander of the army.

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Muhammad Ayub Khan in the '50s and Mohammed Zia ul-Haq in the '70s.
Prominent among those who addressed the seminar included Deputy Commissioner Saleha Saeed, ADC (Revenue) Allah Ditta Warraich, Chief Executive Officer (Education) Iftikhar Nawaz Virk, Deputy Director Colleges Atif Imdad Tarar, MPA Asadullah Arain, Vice Chairman District Council Rai QamarulZaman Kharl and Professor Muhammad Ayub Khan Tahir.
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In 1979 he was promoted to the rank of Major General appointed Professor and Head of the department of Medicine of the newly established Army Medical College at Rawalpindi Cantt Lt Gen Muhammad Ayub Khan the legendary physician and the former head of the Armed forces medical services of the Pak Armed Forces was the first principal of the College.
Driver of the vehicle namely Muhammad Ayub Khan resident of Rasheedabad Peshawar has been arrested at the spot.
He said the selection committee comprising Najeeb Shinwari, Muhammad Ayub Khan and he himself would monitor their performance of the players during the trials.
Meanwhile, Minister for Science and Technology Muhammad Ayub Khan while expressing his grief over human and material losses in the province particularly in Swat district due to recent torrential rains and floods said that the government would take all possible measures for the rehabilitation of flood affectees and would not let them alone in this critical time.
Sialkot based leading exporters including Waqas Akram Awan, Maj (r) Mansur Ahmed, Muhammad Ayub Khan, Mian Khalil Ahmed, Shezada Iben Iqbal Syed, Mohsin Gull and Abdul Rauf Mughal revealed that Allama Iqbal highlighted the sense of unity in Muslim Ummah and raised voice in favour of economic justice.
TARBELA GHAZI -- PML-N Leader Omer Ayub Khan said that to serve the masses, elimination of backwardness and ignorance was an old tradition of his family which he inherited from his father former Speaker National Assembly Gohar Ayoub Khan and his grand father former president of Pakistan Field Martial General (R) Muhammad Ayub Khan, some developmental projects worth billion rupees which he started during his short period as MNA have been completed and few are under process.
Major General Iskander Mirza from August 7, 1955 to October 27, 1958, Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan from Oct 27, 1958 to March 25, 1969, General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan from March 25, 1969 to Dec 20, 1971, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from Dec 20, 1971 to August 14, 1973, Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry from August 14, 1973 to September 16, 1978, General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq from Sept 16, 1978 to AUGUST 17, 1988, Ghulam Ishaq Khan from Aug August 17, 1988 to July 18, 1993, Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari from Nov 14, 1993 to Dec 02, 1997, Muhammad Rafiq Tarar from January 1, 1998 to June 20, 2001 General (Retd) Pervez Musharraf from June 20, 2001 to August 18, 2008 and Asif Ali Zardari from Sept 9, 2008 to Sept 8, 2013.
The Minister for IT, Muhammad Ayub Khan, central leader ANP Tajuddin Khan and a large number of culture-related people attended the ceremony.
The ministers comprising Sardar Hussain Babak, Nimroz Khan, Arshad Abdul, Qazi Asad, Sitara Ayaz, Shagufta Malik, Liaquat Shabab, Wajid Ali Khan, Muhammad Shujah, Syed Zahir Ali Shah, Syed Aqil Shah, Arbab Ayub Jan, Syed Mureed Kazim, Sher Azam Wazir, Muhammad Ayub Khan, Zar Shaid Khan, Saleem Khan, Amjad Khan Afridi, Mehmood Zaib Khan and Pervez Khattak expressed deep sorrow on the killing of the son of Mian Iftikhar.