Under French rule, Saint-Domingue's population, as previously mentioned, was divided into three main social groups or racial-classes, the whites or "Blancs", the "Affranchis", a group composed of free Blacks and mulattoes
, and the great masses of imported enslaved Africans who constituted 75 percent of the population.
were likely more intelligent than blacks because the
This intermediary position also makes "mulattoes
," as a synecdoche for free people of color in general, the symbols in myriad representations of the Haitian Revolution of a struggle between the anti-racism ideologies of many humanitarians and some abolitionists' ambivalence about the economic ramifications of ending slavery.
ultimately became a buffer class between whites and blacks, and whites preferred to deal with them, believing them to be more intelligent and culturally refined than Africans.
Such details support Woods's characterization of colonies in Florida and Texas made up of "Spaniards, blacks, Indians, mestizos, and mulattoes
" in which Catholicism provided a degree of "religious and cultural unity" quite different from anything found in the English colonies (24).
Because limpieza de sangre was requisite to holding all state and church offices, Africans, mulattoes
, and Indians were totally excluded from positions of authority, and therefore, based on calidad, they were also consigned to the lowest social classes.
Yes No Total Age Region North 1823 966 2789 Northeast 1259 661 1920 (ref.) Sothwest 861 309 1170 South 1069 375 1444 Midewest 836 324 1160 Gender Fem 3111 1310 4421 Masc (ref.) 2737 1325 4062 Race Caucasian 2361 900 3261 Oriental 168 75 243 Afro-brazilian 631 317 948 Mulattoes
2488 1224 3712 (ref.) Indigenous 130 63 193 ns/nr 70 56 126 Schooling Primary 1790 1240 3030 incomploete and complete (ref.) Secondary 1682 677 2359 incomplete Secondary 760 249 1009 complete Higher 453 116 569 incomplete Hgher 898 195 1093 complete Family Less than 1 696 458 1154 income Minnimus wage (ref.) 1-2 MW 2198 910 3108 2-5 MW 1963 494 2457 5-10 MW 568 118 686 More than MW 127 42 169 ND 296 613 909 Has a home Yes 2398 752 3150 landline No (ref.) 3450 1883 5333 Dou you feel included?
In 1546 another royal decree granted mulattoes
equal rights with white settlers, allowing mulattoes
to vote and hold office on the town council.
Equally relevant is the fact that musicianship offered enslaved and free blacks and mulattoes
expanded agencies for politically acceptable creative expressions and employment; indeed, we learn that many slave owners took pride in being able to host social dances performed by talented, enslaved blacks.
"A segment of the audience is carrying in the back of its head some sense of movie history," said Bogle, author of Toms, Coons, Mulattoes
, Mammies & Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films.
qualities of mulattoes
. In particular, I focus on the characteristics
While his settings cover a vast geographical scope, from South Africa to North America to the South Seas to Maida Vale, his characters, dominated by theater people and New Women, also include "impoverished novelists, playwrights, painters, composers, circus clowns, opera singers, clerks and typists, South African overseers, female journalists, Jewish financiers, mulattoes
, con-men, persons with disabilities, working spinsters, seamstresses, drama critics, and the nouveau riche" (192).