Multiple Myeloma


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multiple myeloma

[′məl·tə·pəl ‚mī·ə′lō·mə]
(medicine)
A primary bone malignancy characterized by diffuse osteoporosis, anemia, hyperglobulinemia, and other clinical features. Also known as Kahler's disease.

Multiple Myeloma

 

a disease of the bone marrow of the group of plasma cell dyscrasias. It is caused by proliferation of genetically altered (mutated) plasma cells of the bone marrow which synthesize and release into the blood a large quantity of proteins with various physicochemical, biochemical, and immunochemical properties. Multiple myeloma is manifested by changes in the skeletal, hematopoietic, and uropoietic systems and by disturbances in protein and mineral metabolism. Spontaneous fractures and, sometimes, tumors originating in the bone marrow are observed. The bone resorption leads to hypercalcemia, and the excess calcium is deposited in the excretory organs (kidneys, lungs, gastric mucosa) in the form of calcifications. There is renal dysfunction (myeloma kidney) resulting mainly from filtration of abnormal proteins by the kidney. Frequent bacterial infections are characteristic of multiple myeloma because of the decrease in the number of normal immunoglobulins and the disruption of antibody formation.

Treatment consists of chemotherapy, irradiation, and hormonal therapy. Infection is treated by antibiotics and gamma globulin. Proper orthopedic measures are also of great value.

REFERENCES

Alekseev, G. A., and N. E. Andreeva. Mielomnaia bolezn’. Moscow, 1966.
Kassirskii, I. A., and G. A. Alekseev. Klinicheskaia gematologiia, 4th ed. Moscow, 1970.
Burnet, F. M. Kletochnaia immunologiia. Moscow, 1971. (Translated from English.)

A. M. POLIANSKAIA

References in periodicals archive ?
The US Food and Drug Administration approved EPd for the treatment of adult patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least two prior therapies, including lenalidomide and a PI, in November 2018.
This Phase III study (NCT02195479) is a randomized, open-label, multicenter study that included 706 newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma who are ineligible for ASCT.
Rai noted that while newer drugs are helping many multiple myeloma patients, others are still left without viable treatment options.
Study population in the inclusion criteria was either gender with 40 to 80 years of age, who were diagnosed cases of multiple myeloma, in the outpatient clinics and inpatients attending department of hematology at Liaquat National Hospital Karachi.
(7) The presence of extraosseous multiple myeloma has also been noted to be more common in more aggressive variants of the disease, which typically present at a mean age of 50.
David Siegel, chief of the Multiple Myeloma Division at John Theurer Cancer Center at Hackensack University Medical Center, is leading the institute.
Previous studies suggest that MGUS and multiple myeloma tend to develop after exposure to toxic chemicals.
This approval by US FDA was based on data from the phase III ALCYONE study, a randomised, open-label, multicentre study that included 706 newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma who are ineligible for ASCT.
QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute's Immunology in Cancer and Infection senior scientist Professor Mark Smyth and clinician researcher Dr Kyohei Nakamura worked with colleagues in France to make the discovery about multiple myeloma.
Amyloidosis is a complication of multiple myeloma, which is a malignant proliferation of plasma cells (1).
Amgen's sBLA for XGEVA (denosumab) to expand the currently approved indication for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors, has been approved to include multiple myeloma. The approval is based on data from the pivotal Phase III '482 study, the largest international multiple myeloma clinical trial ever conducted, which enrolled 1,718 patients.

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